Red Hat OpenStack, Linux, Virtualization: Cloud Triple Play?

icon-redhatlinuxOpenStack, the open source cloud platform, has hundreds of backers. But like Linux, multiple OpenStack distributions may emerge on the market. That could trigger customer confusion and indecision. Enter Red Hat (NYSE:RHT), the leading provider of corporate Linux solutions. The VAR Guy is betting Red Hat will gradually repeat that success with OpenStack. Here’s why.

First, some background: OpenStack is designed for both public and private clouds. In theory, customers can more easily move workloads between their private systems and third-party clouds if all of those services are built atop OpenStack. But for OpenStack to thrive, it needs a critical mass of developers, suppliers, service providers, channel partners and customers who trust the solutions in the market. Let’s take a closer look at each area:

1. OpenStack Developers: This market seems to be thriving and growing fast. The recent OpenStack Summit 2013 in Portland, Oregon, attracted nearly 3,000 people — most of whom were software developers.

2. Suppliers: Here again, numerous companies want to offer OpenStack distributions. That’s a blessing and a burden, since too many choices can overwhelm customers.

3. Service Providers: It’s still very early but the OpenStack service provider market is promising. Several public clouds — including Rackspace, IBM and Hewlett-Packard — leverage OpenStack. Dell recently abandoned its own public cloud plans, which had included OpenStack.

4. Channel Partners: This is a weak area for OpenStack. The industry needs more trained OpenStack pros. Companies like Mirantis are leading the way here. But much more needs to be done.

5. Customers: BestBuy, Bloomberg, Comcast and Hubspot are using OpenStack. But it’s still early in the OpenStack customer deployment cycle.

Red Hat’s Opportunity

Compared to rival OpenStack advocates, Red Hat was somewhat late to this party. But don’t forget: The OpenStack party is really just getting started. Red Hat in April 2013 set up an OpenStack Partner Network to get going. A Red Hat OpenStack Distribution also is under development.

Why does The VAR Guy care? Simple: Red Hat is the one large open source company that has a strong track record with:

  1. Developers: From giants like SAP to start-ups, developers write applications for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  2. Suppliers: Yes, these can include rival OpenStack suppliers. But what about PC server makers? Here, Red Hat has strong relationships.
  3. Service Providers: From telecom companies to cloud services providers, many of them offer Red Hat in their data centers.
  4. Channel Partners: Partners like VARs influence roughly 60 percent of Red Hat’s sales.
  5. Customers: Check any CIO survey, and you’ll find Red Hat at or near the top of trusted supplier lists.

Red Hat has an opportunity — a big opportunity — to extend that trust from Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) and OpenStack. Plus, you can imagine Red Hat Storage running in those cloud data centers, too.

If OpenStack succeeds on public and private clouds, The VAR Guy suspects, Red Hat will have a hand in that success.

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How to Install and Securing MySQL on CentOS 6.4 VPS

MySQLMySQL Database server is one of the most popular used database in the internet especially for content management and blogging site. It’s can stores and retrieves data for the blog, websites and applications. This post will describes how you can install and securing MySQL on CentOS 6.4 virtual private server (VPS) or dedicated MySQL database server. For more information on MySQL, you can visit their website at www.mysql.com.

1. Install MySQL Database Server using yum command :

[root@centos64 ~]# yum install mysql mysql-server -y

Example :

[root@centos64 ~]# yum install mysql mysql-server -y
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.upsi.edu.my
 * epel: kartolo.sby.datautama.net.id
 * extras: mirror.upsi.edu.my
 * updates: mirror.upsi.edu.my
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-libs = 5.1.69-1.el6_4 for package: mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBI for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(DBI) for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.67-1.el6_3 will be updated
---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be an update
---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.013-3.el6 will be installed
---> Package perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.609-4.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

====================================================================================================
 Package                    Arch               Version                    Repository           Size
====================================================================================================
Installing:
 mysql                      x86_64             5.1.69-1.el6_4             updates             907 k
 mysql-server               x86_64             5.1.69-1.el6_4             updates             8.7 M
Installing for dependencies:
 perl-DBD-MySQL             x86_64             4.013-3.el6                base                134 k
 perl-DBI                   x86_64             1.609-4.el6                base                705 k
Updating for dependencies:
 mysql-libs                 x86_64             5.1.69-1.el6_4             updates             1.2 M

Transaction Summary
====================================================================================================
Install       4 Package(s)
Upgrade       1 Package(s)

Total download size: 12 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/5): mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm                                       | 907 kB     00:07
(2/5): mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm                                  | 1.2 MB     00:12
(3/5): mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm                                | 8.7 MB     01:30
(4/5): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64.rpm                                 | 134 kB     00:00
(5/5): perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64.rpm                                       | 705 kB     00:06
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                               101 kB/s |  12 MB     01:57
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Updating   : mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                                 1/6
  Installing : perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64                                                      2/6
  Installing : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64                                                3/6
  Installing : mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                                      4/6
  Installing : mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                               5/6
  Cleanup    : mysql-libs-5.1.67-1.el6_3.x86_64                                                 6/6
  Verifying  : mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                                 1/6
  Verifying  : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64                                                2/6
  Verifying  : perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64                                                      3/6
  Verifying  : mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                               4/6
  Verifying  : mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64                                                      5/6
  Verifying  : mysql-libs-5.1.67-1.el6_3.x86_64                                                 6/6

Installed:
  mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4                 mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4

Dependency Installed:
  perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.013-3.el6                 perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.609-4.el6

Dependency Updated:
  mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4

Complete!

2. Make mysqld daemon start at boot and start MySQL Database Server :

[root@centos64 ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
[root@centos64 ~]# service mysqld start
Initializing MySQL database:  Installing MySQL system tables...
OK
Filling help tables...
OK

To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system

PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:

/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h centos64.ehowstuff.local password 'new-password'

Alternatively you can run:
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

which will also give you the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default.  This is
strongly recommended for production servers.

See the manual for more instructions.

You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd /usr ; /usr/bin/mysqld_safe &

You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl
cd /usr/mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl

Please report any problems with the /usr/bin/mysqlbug script!

                                                           [  OK  ]
Starting mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]

3. Securing MySQL Database Server. This includes setting up the password for mysql root, remove anonymous users, disallow root login remotely and remove test database and access.

[root@centos64 ~]# /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation




NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!


In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...



All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!


4. For testing, login to MySQL Server using defined password :

[root@centos64 ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 10
Server version: 5.1.69 Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql>

How to Fix “Your PHP installation appears to be missing the MySQL extension which is required by WordPress.”

Issue :

When i try to install WordPress, I’ve encountered this error and returned the following warning on browser :

“Your PHP installation appears to be missing the MySQL extension which is required by WordPress.”

Solution :

The reason for this is your existing PHP does not support mysql or php-mysql extension does not installed. To overcome this issue, just install php mysql support using below command on your virtual private server (VPS) or your dedicated web server.
1. Install php with mysql extension :

yum install php-mysql -y

2. Restart httpd :

[root@centos64 ~]# service httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

Example :

[root@centos64 html]# yum install php-mysql
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.upsi.edu.my
 * epel: ftp.cuhk.edu.hk
 * extras: mirror.upsi.edu.my
 * updates: mirror.upsi.edu.my
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-mysql.x86_64 0:5.3.3-22.el6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: php-pdo(x86-64) for package: php-mysql-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-pdo.x86_64 0:5.3.3-22.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

====================================================================================================
 Package                 Arch                 Version                      Repository          Size
====================================================================================================
Installing:
 php-mysql               x86_64               5.3.3-22.el6                 base                81 k
Installing for dependencies:
 php-pdo                 x86_64               5.3.3-22.el6                 base                75 k

Transaction Summary
====================================================================================================
Install       2 Package(s)

Total download size: 155 k
Installed size: 383 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): php-mysql-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64.rpm                                     |  81 kB     00:00
(2/2): php-pdo-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64.rpm                                       |  75 kB     00:00
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                               137 kB/s | 155 kB     00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : php-pdo-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64                                                      1/2
  Installing : php-mysql-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64                                                    2/2
  Verifying  : php-pdo-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64                                                      1/2
  Verifying  : php-mysql-5.3.3-22.el6.x86_64                                                    2/2

Installed:
  php-mysql.x86_64 0:5.3.3-22.el6

Dependency Installed:
  php-pdo.x86_64 0:5.3.3-22.el6

Complete!

How to Install and Configure 389 LDAP Directory Server on CentOS 6.4

389389 Directory Server is an enterprise-class open source Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server for Linux and based on Fedora Directory Server. 389 Directory server has been developed by Red Hat, as part of Red Hat’s community-supported Fedora Project. This steps has been tested on CentOS 6.4 x86_64 and may work on other version of CentOS as well.

1. Prepare EPEL repository.

2. Install 389-ds file :

[root@centos64 ~]# yum install 389-ds -y

3. Enable SELINUX :

[root@centos64 ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /selinux
Current mode:                   enforcing
Mode from config file:          enforcing
Policy version:                 24
Policy from config file:        targeted

4. Configure hostname, FQDN and host file has been configured correctly :

[root@centos64 ~]# hostname
centos64.ehowstuff.local
[root@centos64 ~]# cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

192.168.2.64    centos64.ehowstuff.local centos64

5. To install 389 LDAP, run the configuration script :

[root@centos64 ~]# /usr/sbin/setup-ds-admin.pl

==============================================================================
This program will set up the 389 Directory and Administration Servers.

It is recommended that you have "root" privilege to set up the software.
Tips for using this program:
  - Press "Enter" to choose the default and go to the next screen
  - Type "Control-B" then "Enter" to go back to the previous screen
  - Type "Control-C" to cancel the setup program

Would you like to continue with set up? [yes]:

==============================================================================
Your system has been scanned for potential problems, missing patches,
etc.  The following output is a report of the items found that need to
be addressed before running this software in a production
environment.

389 Directory Server system tuning analysis version 23-FEBRUARY-2012.

NOTICE : System is x86_64-unknown-linux2.6.32-358.2.1.el6.x86_64 (2 processors).

NOTICE : The net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time is set to 7200000 milliseconds
(120 minutes).  This may cause temporary server congestion from lost
client connections.

WARNING: There are only 1024 file descriptors (soft limit) available, which
limit the number of simultaneous connections.

WARNING  : The warning messages above should be reviewed before proceeding.

Would you like to continue? [no]: yes

==============================================================================
Choose a setup type:

   1. Express
       Allows you to quickly set up the servers using the most
       common options and pre-defined defaults. Useful for quick
       evaluation of the products.

   2. Typical
       Allows you to specify common defaults and options.

   3. Custom
       Allows you to specify more advanced options. This is
       recommended for experienced server administrators only.

To accept the default shown in brackets, press the Enter key.

Choose a setup type [2]:

==============================================================================
Enter the fully qualified domain name of the computer
on which you're setting up server software. Using the form
.
Example: eros.example.com.

To accept the default shown in brackets, press the Enter key.

Warning: This step may take a few minutes if your DNS servers
can not be reached or if DNS is not configured correctly.  If
you would rather not wait, hit Ctrl-C and run this program again
with the following command line option to specify the hostname:

    General.FullMachineName=your.hostname.domain.name

Computer name [centos64.ehowstuff.local]:

==============================================================================
The servers must run as a specific user in a specific group.
It is strongly recommended that this user should have no privileges
on the computer (i.e. a non-root user).  The setup procedure
will give this user/group some permissions in specific paths/files
to perform server-specific operations.

If you have not yet created a user and group for the servers,
create this user and group using your native operating
system utilities.

System User [nobody]:
System Group [nobody]:

==============================================================================
Server information is stored in the configuration directory server.
This information is used by the console and administration server to
configure and manage your servers.  If you have already set up a
configuration directory server, you should register any servers you
set up or create with the configuration server.  To do so, the
following information about the configuration server is required: the
fully qualified host name of the form
.(e.g. hostname.example.com), the port number
(default 389), the suffix, the DN and password of a user having
permission to write the configuration information, usually the
configuration directory administrator, and if you are using security
(TLS/SSL).  If you are using TLS/SSL, specify the TLS/SSL (LDAPS) port
number (default 636) instead of the regular LDAP port number, and
provide the CA certificate (in PEM/ASCII format).

If you do not yet have a configuration directory server, enter 'No' to
be prompted to set up one.

Do you want to register this software with an existing
configuration directory server? [no]:

==============================================================================
Please enter the administrator ID for the configuration directory
server.  This is the ID typically used to log in to the console.  You
will also be prompted for the password.

Configuration directory server
administrator ID [admin]:
Password:
Password (confirm):

==============================================================================
The information stored in the configuration directory server can be
separated into different Administration Domains.  If you are managing
multiple software releases at the same time, or managing information
about multiple domains, you may use the Administration Domain to keep
them separate.

If you are not using administrative domains, press Enter to select the
default.  Otherwise, enter some descriptive, unique name for the
administration domain, such as the name of the organization
responsible for managing the domain.

Administration Domain [ehowstuff.local]:

==============================================================================
The standard directory server network port number is 389.  However, if
you are not logged as the superuser, or port 389 is in use, the
default value will be a random unused port number greater than 1024.
If you want to use port 389, make sure that you are logged in as the
superuser, that port 389 is not in use.

Directory server network port [389]:

==============================================================================
Each instance of a directory server requires a unique identifier.
This identifier is used to name the various
instance specific files and directories in the file system,
as well as for other uses as a server instance identifier.

Directory server identifier [centos64]:

==============================================================================
The suffix is the root of your directory tree.  The suffix must be a valid DN.
It is recommended that you use the dc=domaincomponent suffix convention.
For example, if your domain is example.com,
you should use dc=example,dc=com for your suffix.
Setup will create this initial suffix for you,
but you may have more than one suffix.
Use the directory server utilities to create additional suffixes.

Suffix [dc=ehowstuff, dc=local]:

==============================================================================
Certain directory server operations require an administrative user.
This user is referred to as the Directory Manager and typically has a
bind Distinguished Name (DN) of cn=Directory Manager.
You will also be prompted for the password for this user.  The password must
be at least 8 characters long, and contain no spaces.
Press Control-B or type the word "back", then Enter to back up and start over.

Directory Manager DN [cn=Directory Manager]:
Password:
Password (confirm):

==============================================================================
The Administration Server is separate from any of your web or application
servers since it listens to a different port and access to it is
restricted.

Pick a port number between 1024 and 65535 to run your Administration
Server on. You should NOT use a port number which you plan to
run a web or application server on, rather, select a number which you
will remember and which will not be used for anything else.

Administration port [9830]:

==============================================================================
The interactive phase is complete.  The script will now set up your
servers.  Enter No or go Back if you want to change something.

Are you ready to set up your servers? [yes]:
Creating directory server . . .
Your new DS instance 'centos64' was successfully created.
Creating the configuration directory server . . .
Beginning Admin Server creation . . .
Creating Admin Server files and directories . . .
Updating adm.conf . . .
Updating admpw . . .
Registering admin server with the configuration directory server . . .
Updating adm.conf with information from configuration directory server . . .
Updating the configuration for the httpd engine . . .
Starting admin server . . .
output: Starting dirsrv-admin:
output:                                                    [  OK  ]
The admin server was successfully started.
Admin server was successfully created, configured, and started.
Exiting . . .
Log file is '/tmp/setupDJucbG.log'

6. Start dirsrv and dirsrv-admin service :

[root@centos64 ~]# /etc/init.d/dirsrv start
Starting dirsrv:
    centos64...                                            [  OK  ]
[root@centos64 ~]# /etc/init.d/dirsrv-admin start
Starting dirsrv-admin:
                                                           [  OK  ]

7. Make dirsrv and dirsrv-admin service auto start at boot :

[root@centos64 ~]# chkconfig dirsrv on
[root@centos64 ~]# chkconfig dirsrv-admin on

8. Check dirsrv and dirsrv-admin service status :

[root@centos64 ~]# /etc/init.d/dirsrv-admin status
dirsrv-admin (pid 1409) is running...
[root@centos64 ~]# /etc/init.d/dirsrv status
dirsrv centos64 (pid 1317) is running...

Linux Mint 15 brings prettier desktop, new software and driver managers

The Linux Mint project yesterday unveiled version 15 of the increasingly popular desktop operating system, with upgrades to the MATE and Cinnamon desktop environments as well as new applications for managing software and drivers.

Code-named “Olivia,” Linux Mint 15 is based on the most recent version of Ubuntu and will be supported until January 2014. Linux Mint 15 is in the Release Candidate stage, with a final release coming later. Linux Mint also has a version based on Debian which is released on a “semi-rolling” basis while the Ubuntu-based version mirrors Ubuntu’s six-month release cycle.

“Linux Mint 15 is the most ambitious release since the start of the project,” the Mint announcement states. “MATE 1.6 is greatly improved and Cinnamon 1.8 offers a ton of new features, including a screensaver and a unified control center. The login screen can now be themed in HTML5 and two new tools, ‘Software Sources’ and ‘Driver Manager,’ make their first appearance in Linux Mint.”

Software Sources (or “MintSources”) replaces the previous software-properties-gtk for managing software repositories. The idea was to create a more user-friendly interface:

The new Driver Manager also simplifies the process of managing drivers. “Drivers are listed by package name, and their version are clearly stated (in the case of the Nvidia drivers you can therefore choose according to a particular version instead of wondering what ‘current’ or ‘updates’ really mean),” the Mint release notes state. “Devices from popular brands (Nvidia, ATI, Broadcom, Samsung…) are illustrated with an icon.”

Mint 15 has upgraded login screen applications supporting HTML5, CSS, JavaScript, and WebGL which “can be used to produce beautiful animated and interactive login screens.”

While Ubuntu comes with the Unity desktop environment, Linux Mint users can choose from the two primary options, Cinnamon and MATE. Each has improvements that made their way into Linux Mint 15.

In Cinnamon 1.8 the Nemo file manager’s “user interface was heavily modified and its behavior was adapted to integrate better with Cinnamon.” Cinnamon’s new Control Center replaces the GNOME Control Center, providing a new place to manage system settings.

The new version of MATE features improvements to the file manager, workspace switcher, notifications, and window management.

You can find all versions of Linux Mint available for download on the project website.

Click here for full Story

How to Setup Postfix on CentOS 6.4

Posfix MailPostfix is a open-source mail transfer agent (MTA) that routes and delivers electronic mail. Postfix is an alternative for Sendmail service which provide the same function. This post will describe on how you can install and setup postfix on CentOS 6.4. After you installed postfix, you can use postfix command to controls the operation of the Postfix mail system such as start or stop the master daemon, do a health check, and other maintenance.

1. To install Postfix, use the following yum command :

[root@centos64 ~]# yum install postfix -y

2. To verify if Postfix is already installed, use the following rpm command :

[root@centos64 ~]# rpm -q postfix

Example :

[root@centos64 ~]# rpm -q postfix
postfix-2.6.6-2.2.el6_1.x86_64

3. How to check Postfix version :

[root@centos64 ~]# postconf -d | grep mail_version

Example :

[root@centos64 ~]# postconf -d | grep mail_version
mail_version = 2.6.6
milter_macro_v = $mail_name $mail_version

4. Configure Basic postfix main.cf file :

[root@centos64 ~]# vi /etc/postfix/main.cf

Uncomment and modify the following two line :

myhostname = centos6.4.ehowstuff.local
mydomain = ehowstuff.local

myhostname: is the host name of the system (i.e, the system is called mail or mail.example.com).
mydomain: is the domain name for the email server (it can be a real or fake domain name).

5. Start the postfix service :

[root@centos64 ~]# service postfix start
Starting postfix:                                          [  OK  ]

6. Restart the postfix service :

[root@centos64 ~]# service postfix restart
Shutting down postfix:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting postfix:                                          [  OK  ]

7. How to show postfix pid number on running for postfix services ?

[root@centos64 ~]# ps -ef | grep postfix
root      3081     1  0 05:57 ?        00:00:00 /usr/libexec/postfix/master
postfix   3083  3081  0 05:57 ?        00:00:00 pickup -l -t fifo -u
postfix   3084  3081  0 05:57 ?        00:00:00 qmgr -l -t fifo -u
root      3292  1963  0 06:40 pts/0    00:00:00 grep postfix

How to Use wget With Username and Password for FTP/HTTP Site on Linux

Twitter and LinuxGNU Wget is a free software package for retrieving files using HTTP, HTTPS and FTP, the most widely-used Internet protocols. Some of the website and most of ftp site on internet require username and password in order to access the pages. This post will describe how to use wget with basic authentication.The following example of wget commands should allow you to access pages on a website that requires a username and password:

wget http://username:myPassword@www.ehowstuff.local/example/file.txt
wget --http-user=username --http-password=myPassword http://www.ehowstuff.local/example/file.txt
wget --user=username --password='myPassword' ftp://www.ehowstuff.local/example/file.txt
wget -r --user=username --password='myPassword' ftp://www.ehowstuff.local/example/

How to Setup Persistent Static Routes on Linux CentOS 6.4

linuxStatic routing is a type of method of network routing. Static routing is not actually a routing protocol but it’s just a manual configuration on the network route. This usualy managed by network system administrator. In Linux, static route can be added and delete using “route” command. But the drawback is when linux server is rebooted, it will forget the static routes configuration. To avoid network interruption on the linux server, you can configure static route to take effect immediately without rebooting and also should apply after the next reboot. Static Routes that apply after next reboot is called Persistent Static Routes. To achieve this on CentOS 6.4, the following steps should be perform :

1. To make configuration take effect immediately, run the following command :

[root@centos62 ~]# route add -net <network> netmask <netmask> gw <gateway_ip> dev <interface>

Examples :

[root@centos64 ~]# route add -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
[root@centos64 ~]# route add -net 172.13.1.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 172.13.1.1 dev eth1

2. To apply the configuration on next reboot, configure the following in /etc/sysconfig/static-routes :

[root@centos62 ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/static-routes

Add the followings :

any -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1
any -net 172.13.1.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 172.13.1.1

How to Install vim-enhanced on CentOS 6.4

Linux LogoVIM (VIsual editor iMproved) or VI enhanced is the improved and advanced version of the famous vi editor which added with many enhancements like GUI support, interpreters for the Python and Perl scripting languages, syntax highlighting, online help and multiple windows. VIM or vim-enhanced package seeks to provide complete version of the previous vi editor. Vi was the first editor for UNIX, and is still very popular until today. In order to install VIM on your CentOS 6.4 all you have to do is run the following :

[root@centos64 ~]# yum install vim-enhanced -y

Warning if your CentOS does not install with VIM.

[root@centos64 ~]# vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
-bash: vim: command not found

Download Fedora 18 x86_64 DVD ISO

Fedora 18The Linux distribution is known for being on the bleeding edge of technology, open-source software and operating system. Fedora or formerly Fedora Core is one of this distribution. Fedora was developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and owned by Red Hat. Until now fedora has released 18 times on their Version history. A New version of Fedora 18 aka Spherical Cow has been released on 15 January 2013. The kernel version was use on Spherical Cow 3.6.0. There are a lot of new device drivers and hardware support on this Fedora 18. I would like to share with you the URL to download Fedora 18 64 bit version. You can download this ISO and burn it into the DVD.

Where to Download Fedora 18 x86_64 DVD ISO ?
Fedora-18-x86_64-DVD.iso

Linux commands: Newusers adds new users … fast and furious!

Twitter and LinuxNewusers is a tool that you can use for fast and furious setup of accounts on a Linux server, but you need to know how it works before you put it into use.

First, what is it? Newusers is a tool that you’ll find on Linux systems that takes a file that looks more or less like the /etc/passwd file — actually it’s like the passwd file before it was separated into /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow — and uses the information in that file to create accounts on your server.

The basic format of a passwd file looks like this. The “gecos” field is generally the user’s full name, but sometimes contains other information such as their telephone extension or business unit might be included as well. It’s an odd name, but it goes back a long way!

username:passwd:uid:gid:gecos:homedir:shell

So, the first field in the colon-separated data file is, of course, the username. If the username is the same as that of an existing user, the newusers command is going to take the entries in that line as representing changes that you want to make to that user’s account. It will process changes for a user’s:

  • password
  • gecos information
  • home directory
  • shell

The tool notably doesn’t add startup files like .bash_profile to the accounts that it creates and it doesn’t pay attention if you change group assignments or UIDs for existing accounts. So don’t depend on it for those kind of changes. In addition, the newusers command only create groups for new users.

The GID field can either be a numeric group ID (i.e., normal format) or it can be a group name. If it’s a group name and the group doesn’t exist in /etc/group, the tool will add that group (again, new users only). Don’t omit the GID field or you will probably end up with the group being 0 (root’s group).

Newusers doesn’t seem to follow the convention of using the next available UIDs and GIDs if these fields are missing from your user list file. Omitting both UID and GID, you may end up with 10-digit values for both in a test user — like 4294967295!

Passwords will be unencrypted in your user list file, so you should remove your user list file after use or at least encrypt it so as not to create a new risk on your system. There doesn’t seem to be any way to tell newusers to create the accounts in a locked state or force the user to change his password on first login.

If you use the same initial password for more than one user, the password hashes will be identical. This is only viewable by admins since the hashes are stored in the /etc/shadow file, but it’s more than I’d want anyone to see — that multiple users, even temporarily, have the same passwords. If no password is provided, newusers uses a default hash.

Can you migrate an existing passwd file? Yes, absolutely. This would be an easy way to create accounts for people you are moving from another server.

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How to Configure EPEL Repository on CentOS 6.4 x86_64

epelEPEL repository is another extra repository that creates, maintains, and manages a high quality set of additional packages for Enterprise Linux, including, but not limited to, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and CentOS server. By using EPEL repository you can install some other third party software such as nagios, or bugzilla, phpmyadmin, or any other standard open source software just using yum command. These repositories are not officially supported by CentOS, but this repository provide much more current versions of popular PHP or MySQL applications. This post describe how you can prepare EPEL Repository on CentOS 6.4 x86_64.

1. Download and import the GPG keys for EPEL software packages:

[root@centos64 ~]# wget http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/epel/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
[root@centos64 ~]# rpm --import RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
[root@centos64 ~]# rm -f RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6

2. Download and install EPEL repository for 64-bit CentOS :

[root@centos64 ~]# wget http://ftp.riken.jp/Linux/fedora/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
[root@centos64 ~]# rpm -ivh epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
Preparing... ########################################### [100%]
1:epel-release ########################################### [100%]

Alternately, you can browse other version of EPEL package set using repoview: