How to Determine Linux Kernel is 32 bit or 64 bit

Question :
I’m running a linux CentOS operating system, but i am not sure the linux kernel is 32 bit or 64 bit. How to determine that ?

Answer :
Kindly issue the following command to check the kernel bit version :

[root@vps ~]# uname -m
x86_64

or

[root@vps ~]# uname -r
2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64

x86_64 is 64 bit.

Full uname command options :

[root@vps ~]# uname --help
Usage: uname [OPTION]...
Print certain system information.  With no OPTION, same as -s.

  -a, --all                print all information, in the following order,
                             except omit -p and -i if unknown:
  -s, --kernel-name        print the kernel name
  -n, --nodename           print the network node hostname
  -r, --kernel-release     print the kernel release
  -v, --kernel-version     print the kernel version
  -m, --machine            print the machine hardware name
  -p, --processor          print the processor type or "unknown"
  -i, --hardware-platform  print the hardware platform or "unknown"
  -o, --operating-system   print the operating system
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report uname bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'uname invocation'

How to Fix “/var/run/php-fpm.sock failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1”

Issue :

I received the following error in nginx error log. Happened on nginx/1.6.2 and PHP 5.4.32 (fpm-fcgi).

2014/09/17 00:17:30 [crit] 11909#0: *34 connect() to unix:/var/run/php-fpm.sock failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 127.0.0.1, server: www.ehowstuff.com, request: "GET /feed/ HTTP/1.1", upstream: "fastcgi://unix:/var/run/php-fpm.sock:", host: "www.ehowstuff.com"

Solution :

Edit /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf . Uncomment “listen.mode = 0666”

DDoS attacks rally Linux servers

A significant string of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) campaigns during the second quarter of 2014 were driven by Linux web servers that were compromised and infected by IptabLes and IptabLex malware, according to a threat advisory from Akamai’s Prolexic Security Engineering & Research Team (PLXsert).

“The .IptabLex/s threat is extensive,” Greg Lindor, lead malware analyst for the Akamai PLXsert team, told SCMagazine.com in Thursday email correspondence. “This threat is being used to take part in DDoS campaigns with significant size and reach.”

Researchers at PLXsert observed and measured the attacks, which exploited a number of vulnerabilities, including Apache Struts, Tomcat and Elasticsearch, on unmaintained servers. Stuart Scholly, senior vice president and general manager of Security Business Unit at Akamai, in a press release, urged Linux admins “to take action to protect their servers.”

Linux is not usually targeted in large scale DDoS attacks, Lindor noted. These types of actors typically seek “the route of least resistance…when building a botnet of significant size.”

Payloads called .IptabLes or IptabLex are located in the /boot directory and when rebooted run an .IptabLes binary. The infected system contacts a remote host via self-updating feature to download a file.

“As far as DDoS payloads, the .IptabLes threat is very similar to other DDoS related bot threats,” Lindor said. “What is new is the way this threat it being propagated and the targeted victims.”

Researchers said that in the lab, the infected server tried to contact two IP addresses in Asia. While the bulk of past DDoS bot infections have come out of Russia, more recently many have been found to originate from servers hosted in the U.S. But the command-and-control centers (C2, CC) for the two payloads are located in Asia.

Researchers at PLXsert believe that the DDoS botnet will expand and cause further infestation.

Troubling to researchers is the targeting of Linux servers. Linux is not usually targeted in large scale DDoS attacks. These types of actors typically seek “the route of least resistance…when building a botnet of significant size,” Lindor said.

Noting that “Linux is usually considered the Operating System of choice to build systems running many of our web related services,” Lindor said that “the focus on targeting Linux systems to perform large scale DDoS attacks is relatively new and uncharted territory for these types of actors.” After unrestricted access is gained “by any means the whole system is considered compromised,” he said. Simply hardening operating systems, then, “is no longer sufficient,” but rather “correctly configuring the services being [run] on these platforms is the first line of defense against threats like .IptabLes/x.”

Click here for full Story

How to Configure Static IP Address on RHEL 7.0/CentOS 7.0/Oracle Linux 7

This article will describe the procedure to configure static Ip address on RHEL 7/CentOS 7/Oracle Linux 7 minimal installation. Network interface configuration files control the software interfaces for individual network devices. As the system boots, it uses these files to determine what interfaces to bring up and how to configure them. These files are usually named ifcfg-name. Since the release of RHEL 7, redhat come with the new naming scheme for the network devices. In RHEL7/CentOS7/Oracle Linux 7, the default network interface name is based on firmware, topology, and location information. In this procedure, the network interface name is ifcfg-ens160.

1. Original ip configuration :

# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens160
HWADDR=00:02:22:G4:EE:FF
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
DEFROUTE=yes
PEERDNS=yes
PEERROUTES=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
NAME=ens160
UUID=34796933-af4b-4a41-8287-6e57ac131234
ONBOOT=no

2. Please change BOOTPROTO to static or none, ONBOOT statement is set on YES and don’t change HWADDR and UUID values provided by default. Please add IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY and DNS1 line as below :

HWADDR=00:02:22:G4:EE:FF
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
PEERDNS=yes
PEERROUTES=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
NAME=ens160
UUID=34796933-af4b-4a41-8287-6e57ac131234
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.0.70
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.0.1
DNS1=8.8.8.8

3. Restart network interface to take effect :

# systemctl restart network

or

# service network restart
Restarting network (via systemctl):                        [  OK  ]

4. Run ifconfig to display the ip address. If your ifconfig command is not found, please follow this instruction to install it.(How to Install ifconfig and netstat on RHEL 7.0/CentOS 7.0):

# ifconfig
ens160: flags=4163  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.70  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:feba:3efe  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:ba:3e:fe  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20775  bytes 1455662 (1.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 40  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 1289  bytes 179594 (175.3 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 8  bytes 656 (656.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 8  bytes 656 (656.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

How to Install ifconfig and netstat on RHEL 7.0/CentOS 7.0/Oracle Linux 7

Question :
I have just setup on RHEL 7.0/CentOS 7.0/Oracle Linux 7 minimal server installation but i notice ifconfig and netstat command not found. How to make those command available ?

Solution :
By default, ifconfig and netstat utility is not installed on RHEL 7.0/CentOS 7.0/Oracle Linux 7 minimal server installation. You need to install net-tools utility manually, this include ifconfig and netstat command.

# ifconfig
-bash: ifconfig: command not found

1. Run installation command :

# yum install net-tools -y
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: centos.biz.net.id
 * extras: mirror.smartmedia.net.id
 * updates: centos.biz.net.id
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

====================================================================================================
 Package              Arch              Version                               Repository       Size
====================================================================================================
Installing:
 net-tools            x86_64            2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7              base            304 k

Transaction Summary
====================================================================================================
Install  1 Package

Total download size: 304 k
Installed size: 917 k
Downloading packages:
warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/base/packages/net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID f4a80eb5: NOKEY
Public key for net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64.rpm is not installed
net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64.rpm                                | 304 kB  00:00:10
Retrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
Importing GPG key 0xF4A80EB5:
 Userid     : "CentOS-7 Key (CentOS 7 Official Signing Key) "
 Fingerprint: 6341 ab27 53d7 8a78 a7c2 7bb1 24c6 a8a7 f4a8 0eb5
 Package    : centos-release-7-0.1406.el7.centos.2.3.x86_64 (@anaconda)
 From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64                                        1/1
  Verifying  : net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64                                        1/1

Installed:
  net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7

Complete!

2. Try ifconfig command :

# ifconfig
ens160: flags=4163  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.18  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:feba:3efe  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:ba:3e:fe  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 10357  bytes 9459534 (9.0 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 8239  bytes 2341646 (2.2 MiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

3. Try netstat command :

# netstat -plunt
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:25            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1919/master
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1318/sshd
tcp6       0      0 ::1:25                  :::*                    LISTEN      1919/master
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      1318/sshd
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:47445           0.0.0.0:*                           572/avahi-daemon: r
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5353            0.0.0.0:*                           572/avahi-daemon: r

How to Upgrade Zimbra Collaboration Suite 8.0.7 to 8.5.0 on CentOS 6.5 x86_64

On August 26 2014, the new zimbra version 8.5.0 has been released and it surprise us with the new major features available. The following are the major new features and enhancements in Zimbra Collaboration 8.5.0.

MariaDB

  • MariaDB is a drop-in replacement for MySQL
  • MariaDB 10.0 is used with XtraDB storage engine
  • No data reload required, as uses same database set

ActiveSync Performance and Scalability

  • Improved ActiveSync performance and scalability

Please refer to official release note. I have prepared the steps to upgrade zimbra from version 8.0.7 to zimbra 8.5.0. Please note that this entire procedure, is based on a single zimbra server, not in a multi-server zimbra system.

1. In Zimbra 8.5.0 installation steps, it is necessary to have unzip package installed. If you don’t have unzip package installed, please install by issue the following command :

[root@Zimbra8 ~]# yum install unzip -y

2. Extract the downloaded zimbra file :

[root@Zimbra8 ~]# tar xzvf zcs-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64.20140828192005.tgz

3. Enter the extracted directory :

[root@Zimbra8 ~]# cd zcs-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64.20140828192005

4. Start the upgrade :

[root@Zimbra8 zcs-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64.20140828192005]# ./install.sh --platform-override

Full example :

[root@Zimbra8 zcs-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64.20140828192005]# ./install.sh --platform-override

Operations logged to /tmp/install.log.18026
Checking for existing installation...
    zimbra-ldap...FOUND zimbra-ldap-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-logger...FOUND zimbra-logger-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-mta...FOUND zimbra-mta-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-dnscache...NOT FOUND
    zimbra-snmp...FOUND zimbra-snmp-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-store...FOUND zimbra-store-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-apache...FOUND zimbra-apache-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-spell...FOUND zimbra-spell-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-convertd...NOT FOUND
    zimbra-memcached...FOUND zimbra-memcached-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-proxy...FOUND zimbra-proxy-8.0.7_GA_6021
    zimbra-archiving...NOT FOUND
    zimbra-cluster...NOT FOUND
    zimbra-core...FOUND zimbra-core-8.0.7_GA_6021
ZCS upgrade from 8.0.7 to 8.5.0 will be performed.

Saving existing configuration file to /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig


PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE SOFTWARE.
ZIMBRA, INC. ("ZIMBRA") WILL ONLY LICENSE THIS SOFTWARE TO YOU IF YOU
FIRST ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. BY DOWNLOADING OR INSTALLING
THE SOFTWARE, OR USING THE PRODUCT, YOU ARE CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY
THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS
AGREEMENT, THEN DO NOT DOWNLOAD, INSTALL OR USE THE PRODUCT.

License Terms for the Zimbra Collaboration Suite:
  http://www.zimbra.com/license/zimbra-public-eula-2-5.html



Do you agree with the terms of the software license agreement? [N] y



Checking for prerequisites...
     FOUND: NPTL
     FOUND: nc-1.84-22
     FOUND: sudo-1.8.6p3-12
     FOUND: libidn-1.18-2
     FOUND: gmp-4.3.1-7
     FOUND: libaio-0.3.107-10
     FOUND: libstdc++-4.4.7-4
     FOUND: unzip-6.0-1

Checking for suggested prerequisites...
     FOUND: perl-5.10.1
     FOUND: sysstat
     FOUND: sqlite
Prerequisite check complete.
Checking current number of databases...

Do you want to verify message store database integrity? [Y] y
Verifying integrity of message store databases.  This may take a while.
mysqld is alive
No errors found

Checking for installable packages

Found zimbra-core
Found zimbra-ldap
Found zimbra-logger
Found zimbra-mta
Found zimbra-dnscache
Found zimbra-snmp
Found zimbra-store
Found zimbra-apache
Found zimbra-spell
Found zimbra-memcached
Found zimbra-proxy


The Zimbra Collaboration Server appears already to be installed.
It can be upgraded with no effect on existing accounts,
or the current installation can be completely removed prior
to installation for a clean install.

Do you wish to upgrade? [Y]

Select the packages to install
    Upgrading zimbra-core
    Upgrading zimbra-ldap
    Upgrading zimbra-logger
    Upgrading zimbra-mta

Install zimbra-dnscache [N]
    Upgrading zimbra-snmp
    Upgrading zimbra-store
    Upgrading zimbra-apache
    Upgrading zimbra-spell
    Upgrading zimbra-memcached
    Upgrading zimbra-proxy
Checking required space for zimbra-core
Checking space for zimbra-store
Checking required packages for zimbra-store
zimbra-store package check complete.

Installing:
    zimbra-core
    zimbra-ldap
    zimbra-logger
    zimbra-mta
    zimbra-snmp
    zimbra-store
    zimbra-apache
    zimbra-spell
    zimbra-memcached
    zimbra-proxy

The system will be modified.  Continue? [N] y

Shutting down zimbra mail

Backing up the ldap database...done.

Removing existing packages

   zimbra-ldap...done
   zimbra-logger...done
   zimbra-mta...done
   zimbra-snmp...done
   zimbra-store...done
   zimbra-spell...done
   zimbra-memcached...done
   zimbra-proxy...done
   zimbra-apache...done
   zimbra-core...done

Removing deployed webapp directories
Installing packages

    zimbra-core......zimbra-core-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-ldap......zimbra-ldap-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-logger......zimbra-logger-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-mta......zimbra-mta-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-snmp......zimbra-snmp-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-store......zimbra-store-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-apache......zimbra-apache-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-spell......zimbra-spell-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-memcached......zimbra-memcached-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done
    zimbra-proxy......zimbra-proxy-8.5.0_GA_3042.RHEL6_64-20140828192005.x86_64.rpm...done

Setting defaults from saved config in /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/config.save
   HOSTNAME=centos65.ehowstuff.local
   LDAPHOST=centos65.ehowstuff.local
   LDAPPORT=389
   SNMPTRAPHOST=centos65.ehowstuff.local
   SMTPSOURCE=admin@ehowstuff.local
   SMTPDEST=admin@ehowstuff.local
   SNMPNOTIFY=yes
   SMTPNOTIFY=yes
   LDAPROOTPW=35WrLoqhzZ
   LDAPZIMBRAPW=35WrLoqhzZ
   LDAPPOSTPW=35WrLoqhzZ
   LDAPREPPW=35WrLoqhzZ
   LDAPAMAVISPW=35WrLoqhzZ
   LDAPNGINXPW=35WrLoqhzZ
Restoring existing configuration file from /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/localconfig.xml...done
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup09042014-232935.log
Upgrading from 8.0.7_GA_6021 to 8.5.0_GA_3042
Stopping zimbra services...done.
This appears to be 8.0.7_GA
Starting mysql...done.
Checking ldap status...not running.
Checking ldap status...not running.
Starting ldap...done.
Checking ldap status...already running.
Running mysql_upgrade...done.
Schema upgrade required from version 92 to 103.
Running /opt/zimbra/libexec/scripts/migrate20130226_alwayson.pl
Thu Sep  4 23:30:44 2014: Verified schema version 92.
Thu Sep  4 23:30:47 2014: Verified schema version 92.
Thu Sep  4 23:30:47 2014: Updating DB schema version from 92 to 100.
Running /opt/zimbra/libexec/scripts/migrate20140319-MailItemPrevFolders.pl
Thu Sep  4 23:30:53 2014: Verified schema version 100.
Thu Sep  4 23:30:54 2014: Migrating mboxgroup1.  This can take a substantial amount of time...
Thu Sep  4 23:30:59 2014: done.

Thu Sep  4 23:30:59 2014: Migrating mboxgroup2.  This can take a substantial amount of time...
Thu Sep  4 23:31:02 2014: done.

Thu Sep  4 23:31:02 2014: Migrating mboxgroup3.  This can take a substantial amount of time...
Thu Sep  4 23:31:05 2014: done.

Thu Sep  4 23:31:05 2014: Migrating mboxgroup4.  This can take a substantial amount of time...
Thu Sep  4 23:31:09 2014: done.

Thu Sep  4 23:31:09 2014: Migrating mboxgroup5.  This can take a substantial amount of time...
Thu Sep  4 23:31:12 2014: done.

Thu Sep  4 23:31:13 2014: Verified schema version 100.
Thu Sep  4 23:31:13 2014: Updating DB schema version from 100 to 101.
Running /opt/zimbra/libexec/scripts/migrate20140328-EnforceTableCharset.pl
Thu Sep  4 23:31:19 2014: Verified schema version 101.
Thu Sep  4 23:31:37 2014: Verified schema version 101.
Thu Sep  4 23:31:37 2014: Updating DB schema version from 101 to 102.
Running /opt/zimbra/libexec/scripts/migrate20140624-DropMysqlIndexes.pl
Thu Sep  4 23:31:43 2014: Verified schema version 102.
Thu Sep  4 23:31:54 2014: Verified schema version 102.
Thu Sep  4 23:31:54 2014: Updating DB schema version from 102 to 103.
Stopping mysql...done.
Updating from 8.0.8_GA
Updating from 8.5.0_BETA1
Updating from 8.5.0_BETA2
Updating from 8.5.0_BETA3
Updating from 8.5.0_GA
Updating global config and COS's with attributes introduced after 8.0.7_GA...done.
Stopping ldap...done.
Upgrade complete.

Checking ldap status....not running.
Starting ldap...done.
Setting defaults...done.
Setting defaults from existing config...done.
Checking for port conflicts
Setting defaults from ldap...done.
Saving config in /opt/zimbra/config.31153...done.
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup09042014-232935.log
Setting local config values...done.
Initializing core config...Setting up CA...done.
Deploying CA to /opt/zimbra/conf/ca ...done.
Setting replication password...done.
Setting Postfix password...done.
Setting amavis password...done.
Setting nginx password...done.
Creating server entry for centos65.ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Setting Zimbra IP Mode...done.
Saving CA in ldap ...done.
Saving SSL Certificate in ldap ...done.
Setting spell check URL...done.
Setting service ports on centos65.ehowstuff.local...done.
Setting Keyboard Shortcut Preferences...done.
Setting zimbraFeatureTasksEnabled=TRUE...done.
Setting zimbraFeatureBriefcasesEnabled=FALSE...done.
Setting MTA auth host...done.
Setting TimeZone Preference...done.
Initializing mta config...done.
Setting services on centos65.ehowstuff.local...done.
Adding centos65.ehowstuff.local to zimbraMailHostPool in default COS...done.
Creating user spam.wc5ohhoylp@ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Creating user ham.ypxiyleoyj@ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Creating user virus-quarantine.kl6ejsnmd@ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Setting spam training and Anti-virus quarantine accounts...done.
Configuring SNMP...done.
Setting up syslog.conf...done.
Starting servers...done.
Checking for deprecated zimlets...done.
Checking for network zimlets in LDAP...done.
Removing network zimlets...
Finished removing network zimlets.
Installing common zimlets...
        com_zimbra_webex...done.
        com_zimbra_date...done.
        com_zimbra_adminversioncheck...done.
        com_zimbra_cert_manager...done.
        com_zimbra_tooltip...done.
        com_zimbra_proxy_config...done.
        com_zimbra_attachcontacts...done.
        com_zimbra_viewmail...done.
        com_zimbra_bulkprovision...done.
        com_zimbra_clientuploader...done.
        com_zimbra_linkedinimage...done.
        com_zimbra_phone...done.
        com_zimbra_attachmail...done.
        com_zimbra_ymemoticons...done.
        com_zimbra_srchhighlighter...done.
        com_zimbra_mailarchive...done.
        com_zimbra_url...done.
        com_zimbra_email...done.
Finished installing common zimlets.
Getting list of all zimlets...done.
Updating non-standard zimlets...
Finished updating non-standard zimlets.
Restarting mailboxd...done.
Skipping creation of default domain GAL sync account - existing install detected.

You have the option of notifying Zimbra of your installation.
This helps us to track the uptake of the Zimbra Collaboration Server.
The only information that will be transmitted is:
        The VERSION of zcs installed (8.5.0_GA_3042_RHEL6_64)
        The ADMIN EMAIL ADDRESS created (admin@ehowstuff.local)

Notify Zimbra of your installation? [Yes] no
Notification skipped
Setting up zimbra crontab...done.


Moving /tmp/zmsetup09042014-232935.log to /opt/zimbra/log


Configuration complete - press return to exit

5. Once upgrade process completed, please verify the zimbra services :

[root@Zimbra8 ~]# su - zimbra
[zimbra@centos65-Zimbra8 ~]$ zmcontrol status
Host centos65.ehowstuff.local
        amavis                  Running
        antispam                Running
        antivirus               Running
        ldap                    Running
        logger                  Running
        mailbox                 Running
        memcached               Running
        mta                     Running
        opendkim                Running
        proxy                   Running
        service webapp          Running
        snmp                    Running
        spell                   Running
        stats                   Running
        zimbra webapp           Running
        zimbraAdmin webapp      Running
        zimlet webapp           Running
        zmconfigd               Running

How to Install VMware Tools on RHEL 7/CentOS 7

VMware ToolsVMware Tools is one of important components for virtual machine (VM) in order get excellent performance. It is a group of utilities that help to enhances the overall performance of the virtual machine’s guest operating system (OS) and improves management of the VM. Without the VMware Tools, guest OS performance will lacks some of the important functionality. Below steps shows how to install the VMware Tools on RHEL 7, CentOS 7 and Oracle Linux 7.

How to Install VMware Tools ?

Option 1 (Recommended by VMware) – VMware support of open-vm-tools

open-vm-tools is an open source implementation of VMware Tools from third parties and contains utilities that enhances virtualization management, administration and functions of the virtual machine in VMware environments. The ultimate goal is to enable the operating system vendors and/or communities and virtual appliance vendors to bundle VMware Tools into their product releases.

# yum install open-vm-tools
Option 2 :

1. Install prerequisites :

# yum install perl gcc make kernel-headers kernel-devel -y

2. Attach the vmware tools sofware from vSphere client.

3. Mount the vmware tools package into /mnt :

# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt
mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only

4. Copy vmware tool packagae into /tmp :

# cd /mnt
# ls
manifest.txt     VMwareTools-9.4.0-1280544.tar.gz  vmware-tools-upgrader-64
run_upgrader.sh  vmware-tools-upgrader-32
# cp -p VMwareTools-9.4.0-1280544.tar.gz /tmp

5. Go to /tmp directory and extract the vmware tools package :

# cd /tmp
# tar xzvf VMwareTools-9.4.0-1280544.tar.gz

6. Go to extracted folder, vmware-tools-distrib :

# cd vmware-tools-distrib
# ls
bin  doc  etc  FILES  INSTALL  installer  lib  vmware-install.pl

7. Run vmware-install.pl to start installation :

# ./vmware-install.pl

Example:

# ./vmware-install.pl
Creating a new VMware Tools installer database using the tar4 format.

Installing VMware Tools.

In which directory do you want to install the binary files?
[/usr/bin]

What is the directory that contains the init directories (rc0.d/ to rc6.d/)?
[/etc/rc.d]

What is the directory that contains the init scripts?
[/etc/rc.d/init.d]

In which directory do you want to install the daemon files?
[/usr/sbin]

In which directory do you want to install the library files?
[/usr/lib/vmware-tools]

The path "/usr/lib/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program is
going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you want?
[yes]

In which directory do you want to install the documentation files?
[/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools]

The path "/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program
is going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you
want? [yes]

The installation of VMware Tools 9.4.0 build-1280544 for Linux completed
successfully. You can decide to remove this software from your system at any
time by invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-uninstall-tools.pl".

Before running VMware Tools for the first time, you need to configure it by
invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-config-tools.pl". Do you want
this program to invoke the command for you now? [yes]

Initializing...


Making sure services for VMware Tools are stopped.

Stopping vmware-tools (via systemctl):                     [  OK  ]


The module vmci has already been installed on this system by another installer
or package and will not be modified by this installer.

The module vsock has already been installed on this system by another installer
or package and will not be modified by this installer.

The module vmxnet3 has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.

The module pvscsi has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.

The module vmmemctl has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.

The VMware Host-Guest Filesystem allows for shared folders between the host OS
and the guest OS in a Fusion or Workstation virtual environment.  Do you wish
to enable this feature? [no]

The vmxnet driver is no longer supported on kernels 3.3 and greater. Please
upgrade to a newer virtual NIC. (e.g., vmxnet3 or e1000e)

The vmblock enables dragging or copying files between host and guest in a
Fusion or Workstation virtual environment.  Do you wish to enable this feature?
[no]

VMware automatic kernel modules enables automatic building and installation of
VMware kernel modules at boot that are not already present. This feature can be

enabled/disabled by re-running vmware-config-tools.pl.

Would you like to enable VMware automatic kernel modules?
[no]

No X install found.

Creating a new initrd boot image for the kernel.
Starting vmware-tools (via systemctl):                     [  OK  ]
The configuration of VMware Tools 9.4.0 build-1280544 for Linux for this
running kernel completed successfully.

You must restart your X session before any mouse or graphics changes take
effect.

You can now run VMware Tools by invoking "/usr/bin/vmware-toolbox-cmd" from the
command line.

To enable advanced X features (e.g., guest resolution fit, drag and drop, and
file and text copy/paste), you will need to do one (or more) of the following:
1. Manually start /usr/bin/vmware-user
2. Log out and log back into your desktop session; and,
3. Restart your X session.

Enjoy,

--the VMware team

8. Once successfully installed, make sure you umount back the /mnt :

# umount /mnt

 

How to Disable SELinux on RHEL 7/CentOS 7/Oracle Linux 7

Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is an implementation of security policies for operating systems that provides a mechanism to support and help control access in the linux kernel. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (RHEL 7), CentOS 7 and Oracle Linux 7 (OL7), SELinux services were installed by default. The following tutorial will show you the basic steps to permanently disable SELinux on RHEL 7, CentOS 7 and OL7.

1. Check SELinux status :

[root@centos7 ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /sys/fs/selinux
SELinux root directory:         /etc/selinux
Loaded policy name:             targeted
Current mode:                   enforcing
Mode from config file:          enforcing
Policy MLS status:              enabled
Policy deny_unknown status:     allowed
Max kernel policy version:      28

2. Open selinux configuration file :

[root@centos7 ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/selinux

3. Change “SELINUX=enforcing” to “SELINUX=disabled” and save the configuration file :

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#     enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#     permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#     disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=disabled
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
#     targeted - Targeted processes are protected,
#     minimum - Modification of targeted policy. Only selected processes are protected.
#     mls - Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

4. Reboot the server to take effect :

[root@centos7 ~]# reboot

5. After reboot, you can verify the status of SELinux. Issue “sestatus” command to verify that SELinux permanently disabled:

[root@centos7 ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled

New Naming Scheme for the Network Interface on RHEL 7/CentOS 7

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (RHEL 7) and CentOS 7 come with the new naming scheme for the network devices.

These features change the name of network interfaces on a system in order to make the network interfaces fully predictable, fully automatic, easier to differentiate and that broken hardware can be replaced seamlessly.

This affects both network adapters embedded on the motherboard (Lan-on-Motherboard, or additional adapters such as PCI network card and etc.

Traditionally, network interfaces in Linux used eth[0123…]. In RHEL7/CentOS7, the default network interface name is based on firmware, topology, and location information.

The following different naming schemes for network interfaces are now supported by udev natively:

  • Names incorporating Firmware or BIOS provided index numbers for on-board devices (example: eno1)
  • Names incorporating Firmware or BIOS provided PCI Express hotplug slot index numbers (example: ens1)
  • Names incorporating physical location of the connector of the hardware (example: enp2s0)
  • Names incorporating the interface’s MAC address (example: enx78e7d1ea46da)
  • The traditional unpredictable kernel-native ethX naming (example: eth0)

The names have two character prefixes based on the type of interface:

  • en for Ethernet,
  • wl for wireless LAN (WLAN),
  • ww for wireless wide area network (WWAN).
FormatDescription
o<index>on-board device index number
s<slot>[f<function>][d<dev_id>]hotplug slot index number
x<MAC>MAC address
p<bus>s<slot>[f<function>][d<dev_id>]PCI geographical location
p<bus>s<slot>[f<function>][u<port>][..][c<config>][i<interface>]USB port number chain

ifconfig utility is not installed by default in minimal installation. You can use “ip link show“, “ip addr” or “ip address” to display the auto assigned devices name :

[root@centos7 ~]# ip link show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: ens160: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:ba:3e:fe brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
[root@centos7 ~]# ip address
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens160: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:ba:3e:fe brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.18/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global dynamic ens160
       valid_lft 604707sec preferred_lft 604707sec
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:feba:3efe/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever