How to Remove / Uninstall Nginx on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7

Nginx web server is alternative web server to Apache and Lighttpd. Nginx popularity now growing because it focuses on high concurrency, high performance while maintaining low memory usage. However, due to certain reasons webmaster or system administrator can not use Nginx on their server and decide to uninstall Nginx. Most of the webmaster, administrator and programmer still prefer to user Apache over Nginx as a web server because of the following reasons :

  • Not many webmaster, administrator and programmer comfortable with Nginx configuration
  • Apache has built-in support for a wide range of web programming languages, including Perl, PHP and Python
  • Apache languages are easy to learn and can be used to create powerful online applications
  • Apache is still the most popular web server on the Internet
  • Apache is the oldest web server, you won’t have any trouble finding people skilled in configuring it.

For the linux server platform that running on CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and Oracle linux 7, the removal step for Nginx is quite different from older version. Therefore, this article will explain the steps to remove or uninstall Nginx that was installed from source on CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and Oracle Linux 7.

Note : These steps to Remove / Uninstall Nginx has been tested on CentOS, RHEL and Oracle Linux platform and was running under root privilege.

1. Stop Nginx service and remove Nginx auto start script :

[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo systemctl stop nginx.service
[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo systemctl disable nginx.service

2. Remove Nginx user and it related directory :

[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo userdel -r nginx

3. Delete and related Nginx installation directory :

[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo rm -rf /etc/nginx
[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo rm -rf /var/log/nginx
[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo rm -rf /var/cache/nginx/

4. Remove the created nginx.service script under systemd :

[root@rhel7 ~]# sudo rm -rf /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service

Uninstall Nginx

How to Check and Verify the Version of Python on CentOS 6 / CentOS 7

Python is a popular programming language, which is widely used, high-level programming languages ??and has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability. It is considered as a programming language that is easy to learn and master because of its focus on readability. Python syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code as possible in languages ??other programming such as C ++ or Java. This article show you how to check and verify the version of Python on CentOS 6, CentOS 7, RHEL 6 and RHEL 7.

1. Check Python version :

[root@vps ~]# python --version
Python 2.7.5

2. Enter python command line :

[root@vps ~]# python
Python 2.7.5 (default, Jun 17 2014, 18:11:42)
[GCC 4.8.2 20140120 (Red Hat 4.8.2-16)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

3. To exit, run the following command :

>>> quit()

How to Grant a New User to Root Privileges on CentOS 6 / CentOS 7

One recommended way to manage virtual private server (VPS) or a dedicated linux server is not using the root account as the main access for SSH login. This is because usually the hackers will try to brute force your root password and potentially get access to your server. Instead of using the default root account, you can create a new account and assign root privileges to it and issue the sudo command line to root from it. Please make sure that the normal user account given root privileges accounts work properly before you disable the default root login access. The following command has been tested works on CentOS 6, CentOS 7, RHEL 6 and RHEL 7 VPS.

1. Create new account named skytech and set the password :

[root@vps ~]# useradd skytech
[root@vps ~]# passwd skytech
Changing password for user skytech.
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

2. Grant a New User to Root Privileges

[root@vps ~]# visudo

Add the following code at the bottom of the file and save the file with the command :wq :

## Allow skytech user to run any commands anywhere
skytech    ALL=(ALL)       ALL

This will grant a root privileges to the normal user skytech.

linux-banner

How to Install Nginx on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

NGINX is a web server that focuses to high performance and high concurrency and at the same time very low memory usage. It is a flexible web server and lightly if compare to the Apache HTTP Web Server. Since the advent of RHEL 7 and CentOS 7, many webmasters or system administrators and the owner of Virtual Private Server (VPS) or dedicated server start to find a best way to update and install Nginx on CentOS 7 and RHEL 7. The article below discusses how to install Nginx with two method option and the steps are tested on CentOS 7 and RHEL 7 operating system.

OPTION A. Install Nginx – Source Installation :

1. Install Nginx software prerequisites :

# yum install pcre pcre-devel openssl-devel perl gcc make -y

2. Create Nginx user :

# useradd nginx
# usermod -s /sbin/nologin nginx

3. Create the following directory to keep all the installation files and logs :

# mkdir -p /etc/nginx
# mkdir -p /var/log/nginx
# mkdir -p /var/cache/nginx

4. Download Nginx from official website and extract it :

# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.6.2.tar.gz
# tar xzvf nginx-1.6.2.tar.gz

5. Go to the extracted directory and start Compiling and install Nginx :

# cd nginx-1.6.2
# ./configure --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_auth_request_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-http_spdy_module --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -m64 -mtune=generic'

If your Nginx software compiling is successful, you will received below configuration summary :

Configuration summary
  + using system PCRE library
  + using system OpenSSL library
  + md5: using OpenSSL library
  + sha1: using OpenSSL library
  + using system zlib library

  nginx path prefix: "/etc/nginx"
  nginx binary file: "/usr/sbin/nginx"
  nginx configuration prefix: "/etc/nginx"
  nginx configuration file: "/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
  nginx pid file: "/var/run/nginx.pid"
  nginx error log file: "/var/log/nginx/error.log"
  nginx http access log file: "/var/log/nginx/access.log"
  nginx http client request body temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/client_temp"
  nginx http proxy temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp"
  nginx http fastcgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp"
  nginx http uwsgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp"
  nginx http scgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp"

6. Still in the current, nginx-1.x.x directory, issue the installation command as below :

# make && make install

7. Register Nginx service into systemd as a service by create the file named nginx.service :

# vi /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service

Add the following :

[Unit]
Description=nginx - high performance web server
Documentation=http://nginx.org/en/docs/
After=network.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target

[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/run/nginx.pid
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/nginx -t -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx -c /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
ExecStop=/bin/kill -s QUIT $MAINPID
PrivateTmp=true

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

8. Start Nginx service and make it start at boot :

# sudo systemctl start nginx.service
# sudo systemctl enable nginx.service

9. Stop and disable Firewalld service :

# sudo systemctl stop firewalld.service
# sudo systemctl disable firewalld.service

OPTION B. Install Nginx – Installation via yum repository :

1. To enable automatic updates of Linux packages set up the yum repository for the RHEL/CentOS distributions, you can added manually without installing the nginx-release package. Create the file named /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo with the following contents:

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/OS/OSRELEASE/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

Note : Please replace “OS” with “rhel” or “centos“, depending on the distribution used, and “OSRELEASE” with CentOS or RHEL version such as “5”, “6”, or “7”, for 5.x, 6.x, or 7.x versions, respectively.

As an example for RHEL 7 :

[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/rhel/7/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

2. Alternatively you can install the prepare yum repository using nginx-release package followed by the OS version.

a) RHEL 7 :

# rpm -Uvh http://nginx.org/packages/rhel/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-rhel-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm

b) CentOS 7 :

# rpm -Uvh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm

3. Start install Nginx with yum command :

# yum install nginx -y

How to verify the both installation method are successful or not ?

Visit http://Nginx-ipaddres

install nginx

How to Install Varnish 4 on CentOS 6 / CentOS 7

Varnish is an open source web accelerator typically run in front of web servers such as Apache or Nginx. It is also known as HTTP reverse proxy and designed to serve static content, such as images, stylesheets or scripts. Varnish will keep copies of pages from page revisit the same web server ( Apache or Nginx ) and re-use the cached copy for subsequent requests. This will help dynamic website such as wordpress or joomla improve in website response times and also will reduce the server load.

Varnish is also can be downloaded from EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux) package repositories but the new major versions will not hit EPEL and it is not necessarily up to date. The following steps will describe how we can install Varnish 4 on CentOS 6 and CentOS 7.

Install Varnish 4 on CentOS 6 :

1. Prepare varnish repository :

# rpm -Uvh http://repo.varnish-cache.org/redhat/varnish-4.0/el6/noarch/varnish-release/varnish-release-4.0-4.el6.noarch.rpm

2. Prepare EPEL repository :

# rpm --import https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
# rpm -Uvh https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm

3. Install Varnish :

# yum install varnish -y

4. Start varnish and make varnish start at boot :

# service varnish start
# chkconfig varnish on

Install Varnish 4 on CentOS 7 :

1. Prepare EPEL repository :

# rpm --import https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-7
# rpm -Uvh https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/e/epel-release-7-5.noarch.rpm

Or alternatively you can install by using yum command :

# sudo yum install epel-release -y

2. Install Varnish :

# sudo yum install varnish -y

3. Start varnish and make varnish start at boot :

# sudo systemctl start varnish.service
# sudo systemctl enable varnish.service

varnish-cache

How to Pass Clients/Visitors IP Through Varnish to Nginx

Varnish is a great open source software known as a HTTP reverse proxy is typically run in front of web servers such as Apache or Nginx. In this case we will discuss Varnish and Nginx . The aim of Varnish is to stores the Varnish cache and remember what web server response to the user at the time of the first content access. Then return the cached copy for subsequent requests from end users without asking Nginx web server again. Therefore, Nginx access logs will display the local IP proxy (usually 127.0.0.1 if installed on the same server) instead of user’s IP as per below Nginx access logs.

127.0.0.1 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:03:09 +0800] "GET /red-hat-details-next-linux-and-storage-platforms-for-cloud-big-data-era/?share=google-plus-1 HTTP/1.1" 302 5 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Yahoo! Slurp; http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/slurp)"
127.0.0.1 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:03:15 +0800] "GET /how-to-install-and-configure-epel-repository-on-centos-5-8/ HTTP/1.1" 200 15212 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/40.0.2214.111 Safari/537.36"
127.0.0.1 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:03:22 +0800] "POST /ngx_pagespeed_beacon?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ehowstuff.com%2Fhow-to-install-telnet-client-on-centos-6-3%2F HTTP/1.1" 404 564 "https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto/how-to-install-telnet-client-on-centos-6-3/" "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/40.0.2214.111 Safari/537.36"
127.0.0.1 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:03:23 +0800] "GET /how-to-setup-squid-proxy-server-on-linux-centos-6-3/ HTTP/1.1" 200 16246 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Baiduspider/2.0; +http://www.baidu.com/search/spider.html)"

Varnish

This will be a problem for a software like awstats or log analysis software due to incomplete information of the visitors. This article will teach you how to relay your blog visitor IP address through Varnish, to Nginx logs. The steps has been tested on CentOS 6.6 and CentOS 7. But before we start please make sure that http_realip_module has been enabled. This module allows to change the client’s IP address to value from request header (e. g. X-Real-IP or X-Forwarded-For). This module isn’t built by default, enable it with the configure option

--with-http_realip_module

Steps 1

Include “X-Forwareded-For” in the sub vcl_recv default.vcl :

[root@centos66 ~]# vi /etc/varnish/default.vcl
sub vcl_recv {
        # IP forwarding
        if (req.restarts == 0) {
                if (req.http.x-forwarded-for) {
                set req.http.X-Forwarded-For =
                        req.http.X-Forwarded-For + ", " + client.ip;
                } else {
                set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;
                }
        }
..
..

Steps 2

Add the following in nginx.conf :

[root@centos66 ~]# vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
http {
..
..
    set_real_ip_from   127.0.0.1;
    real_ip_header      X-Forwarded-For;

..
..
}

Steps 3
Restart Nginx web server and Varnish :

[root@centos66 ~]# service nginx restart
[root@centos66 ~]# service varnish restart

Steps 4

Check and monitor the nginx access log again. It should returned the actual visitor IP as below :

157.55.39.102 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:06:04 +0800] "GET /how-to-download-centos-6-2-iso/ HTTP/1.1" 200 14622 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; bingbot/2.0; +http://www.bing.com/bingbot.htm)"
68.180.228.247 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:06:16 +0800] "GET /tag/centos-6-2/page/4/ HTTP/1.1" 200 14474 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Yahoo! Slurp; http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch/slurp)"
220.181.108.178 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:06:25 +0800] "GET /howto-guides/howto-centos/ HTTP/1.1" 200 13863 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Baiduspider/2.0; +http://www.baidu.com/search/spider.html)"
66.249.79.116 - - [16/Feb/2015:01:06:33 +0800] "GET /how-to-enable-root-login-on-ubuntu-14-04/ HTTP/1.1" 200 15547 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)"

How to Hide PHP Version in Linux

In general, most of the web server software has been installed with default settings that will lead to information leakage. One of them is a PHP software. PHP (Hypertest Preprocessor) is one of the most popular server-side HTML embedded scripting language for the websites today. In the current challenging times, there are lots of attacker will try to discover the weaknesses in your your server system. Hence, i will describe the simple way to hide the PHP information in Linux server.

By default expose_php is set to On. Turning off the “expose_php” parameter causes that PHP will hide it version details.

[root@centos66 ~]# vi /etc/php.ini

In your php.ini, locate the line containing expose_php On and set it to Off:

expose_php = Off

Before the changes, web server header will look like below :

[root@centos66 ~]# curl -I https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto/
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.3.3
X-Pingback: https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto/xmlrpc.php
Date: Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:10:43 GMT
X-Page-Speed: 1.9.32.2-4321
Cache-Control: max-age=0, no-cache

After the changes, PHP will no longer show the version to the web server header :

[root@centos66 ~]# curl -I https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto/
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx
Date: Wed, 11 Feb 2015 15:38:14 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Pingback: https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto/xmlrpc.php
Date: Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:10:43 GMT
X-Page-Speed: 1.9.32.2-4321
Cache-Control: max-age=0, no-cache

How to Disable Autostart for a Service at boot on Linux CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

Question : Due to some reason, I had to stop a service on linux CentOS 7. But when i restarted the server, the service starts again automatically. How to stop or disabled auto start services at boot ?

Answer : Just issue the following command to disabled auto start for particular service.

Syntax :

sudo systemctl disable <service-named>.service

Example :

[root@centos7 ~]# sudo systemctl disable named-chroot.service
rm '/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/named-chroot.service'

How to Install LAMP on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7

LAMP stack is a group of open source software that installed together to let you run a web server to host dynamic websites. “L” stand for Linux, “A” stand for Apache (to host Web server), “M” stand for MySQL(to store database) but in RHEL 7, MariaDB will in place of MySQL by default. “P” stand for PHP(to process dynamic content). This brief tutorial will explain how to install LAMP on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7.

How to Install LAMP on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7

The LAMP stack is just short reference for Linux, Apache, MySQL/MariaDB and PHP :

L = Linux
A = Apache
M = MariaDB /MySQL
P = PHP

If you’re a newbie, these steps can help to install web server and database server on linux operating system. It is very simple to install install LAMP on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7. You just need to follow these steps one by one.

1. Install Apache web server, Mariadb database and PHP packages :

When come to the question, how to install web server i ? The answer is very easy,

[root@centos7 ~]# sudo yum install mariadb mariadb-server httpd php php-mysql php-gd php-ldap php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc php-mbstring php-snmp php-soap -y

2. Start Apache web server and Mariadb database. Make it auto start at boot :

[root@centos7 ~]# sudo systemctl start httpd.service
[root@centos7 ~]# sudo systemctl enable httpd.service
[root@centos7 ~]# sudo systemctl start mariadb
[root@centos7 ~]# sudo systemctl enable mariadb.service

3. Settings for MariaDB.

[root@centos7 ~]# sudo mysql_secure_installation
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation: line 379: find_mysql_client: command not found

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have a root password set, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
ERROR 1008 (HY000) at line 1: Can't drop database 'test'; database doesn't exist
 ... Failed!  Not critical, keep moving...
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

4. Browse to your server ip http://IPaddress.

Install LAMP on CentOS 7
Follow the instruction in welcome.conf before proceed to configure the virtual host :

[root@centos7 ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf

Install LAMP on CentOS 7

5. Configure Apache Virtual host :

a. Create DocumentRoot directory for new domain :

[root@centos7 ~]# mkdir -p /var/www/html/ehowstuff

b. Create vhost.conf to place Name-based virtual host. For example, the default domain is centos7.ehowstuff.local and you wish to add the new virtual host www.ehowstuff.local, which points at the same IP address.

[root@centos7 ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf

Add the following. Please note that “NameVirtualHost *:80” no longer valid in Apache 2.4.x :

#Create new default domain
<VirtualHost *:80>
   DocumentRoot /var/www/html
   ServerName centos7.ehowstuff.local
</VirtualHost>
# for virtual domain
<VirtualHost *:80>
   DocumentRoot /var/www/html/ehowstuff
   ServerName www.ehowstuff.local
   ServerAdmin webmaster@ehowstuff.local
   ErrorLog logs/www.ehowstuff.local-error_log
   CustomLog logs/www.ehowstuff.local-access_log combined
</VirtualHost>

6. To debug apache configuration :

[root@centos7 ~]# httpd -S
VirtualHost configuration:
*:80                   is a NameVirtualHost
         default server centos7.ehowstuff.local (/etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf:2)
         port 80 namevhost centos7.ehowstuff.local (/etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf:2)
         port 80 namevhost centos7.ehowstuff.local (/etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf:2)
         port 80 namevhost www.ehowstuff.local (/etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf:7)
         port 80 namevhost www.ehowstuff.local (/etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf:7)
ServerRoot: "/etc/httpd"
Main DocumentRoot: "/var/www/html"
Main ErrorLog: "/etc/httpd/logs/error_log"
Mutex proxy: using_defaults
Mutex authn-socache: using_defaults
Mutex default: dir="/run/httpd/" mechanism=default
Mutex mpm-accept: using_defaults
Mutex authdigest-opaque: using_defaults
Mutex proxy-balancer-shm: using_defaults
Mutex rewrite-map: using_defaults
Mutex authdigest-client: using_defaults
PidFile: "/run/httpd/httpd.pid"
Define: DUMP_VHOSTS
Define: DUMP_RUN_CFG
User: name="apache" id=48
Group: name="apache" id=48

7. To get more information about apache :

[root@centos7 ~]# httpd -V
Server version: Apache/2.4.6 (CentOS)
Server built:   Jan 12 2015 13:22:31
Server's Module Magic Number: 20120211:23
Server loaded:  APR 1.4.8, APR-UTIL 1.5.2
Compiled using: APR 1.4.8, APR-UTIL 1.5.2
Architecture:   64-bit
Server MPM:     prefork
  threaded:     no
    forked:     yes (variable process count)
Server compiled with....
 -D APR_HAS_SENDFILE
 -D APR_HAS_MMAP
 -D APR_HAVE_IPV6 (IPv4-mapped addresses enabled)
 -D APR_USE_SYSVSEM_SERIALIZE
 -D APR_USE_PTHREAD_SERIALIZE
 -D SINGLE_LISTEN_UNSERIALIZED_ACCEPT
 -D APR_HAS_OTHER_CHILD
 -D AP_HAVE_RELIABLE_PIPED_LOGS
 -D DYNAMIC_MODULE_LIMIT=256
 -D HTTPD_ROOT="/etc/httpd"
 -D SUEXEC_BIN="/usr/sbin/suexec"
 -D DEFAULT_PIDLOG="/run/httpd/httpd.pid"
 -D DEFAULT_SCOREBOARD="logs/apache_runtime_status"
 -D DEFAULT_ERRORLOG="logs/error_log"
 -D AP_TYPES_CONFIG_FILE="conf/mime.types"
 -D SERVER_CONFIG_FILE="conf/httpd.conf"

8. Check php version :

[root@centos7 ~]# php -v
PHP 5.4.16 (cli) (built: Oct 31 2014 12:59:36)
Copyright (c) 1997-2013 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2013 Zend Technologies

Install LAMP on CentOS 7

I hope this article gives you some ideas and essential guidance on how to install LAMP on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7.

 

Linux Foundation Bundles SysAdmin Training Course, Certification Exam

Want to work as a Linux systems administrator? The Linux Foundation has added a way to gain the requisite knowledge and certification through a training course, Essentials of System Administration, that covers the key skills required for managing servers, clouds and other systems based on the open source OS.

The course takes place fully online and is designed to be distribution-agnostic, meaning it teaches core skills that apply to all of the various iterations of Linux currently available. It focuses on “under-the-hood” aspects of Linux systems, from kernel drivers and file systems to system processes and network configuration.

The Linux Foundation introduced the course to help meet growing demand within the enterprise for expertise in Linux and open source software, according to the group. “The best way to address the skills shortage in the Linux community is to provide a variety of ways for people to learn Linux and to access the knowledge they need to advance their careers,” Linux Foundation Executive Director Jim Zemlin said in a statement. “The Linux Foundation will continue to explore new ways to deliver Linux learning materials, and increase opportunities for professionals who want to advance the world’s largest collaborative development project.”

The training course, which has course number LFS201 under the Linux Foundation’s hierarchy of courses, will provide the knowledge necessary to complete the test for the Linux Foundation’s SysAdmin certification successfully, according to the organization. That certification was introduced last year, but the Linux Foundation is offering the opportunity to take the certification test free of charge to students who register for the training course, which currently costs $499.

The Linux Foundation is pitching the coupling of the training course with the certification exam as a particularly cost-effective opportunity for gaining Linux system-administration knowledge and certification. The course “is quite a bit more affordable than equivalent ones on the market by itself, and when bundled with the exam becomes an even better deal which we hope will help expand Linux education and opportunities to more people,” a Linux Foundation representative wrote in an email.

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Top 10 most read: Xperia Z3 review, Ghost Linux bug, IBM job cut rumours

The smartphone market remains a confusing place for those seeking a new phone, with the likes of Apple, Samsung, Google, Sony and HTC all competing for attention.

So it’s no surprise that V3’s head-to-head reviews between the big boys of the smartphone arena are popular, and so it proved with our Nexus 6 v iPhone 6 v Xperia Z3 head-to-head. Check out the review to see which phone won.

Elsewhere, security hit the headlines once again. A Linux bug dubbed ‘Ghost’ was uncovered which could be exploited to hijack systems. Versions of Linux dating back as far as 2000 are affected.

As if this wasn’t bad enough, efforts by Google to improve security in popular products drew criticism from security researchers, who said that the firm is doing more harm than good with its disclosure policies.

Lastly, rumours that IBM was planning a giant jobs cull, possibly as high as 118,000 workers from around the world, also raised eyebrows. IBM flatly denied the reports, claiming that the firm is actually engaged in a hiring spree at present.

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How to Reclaim Free Space for Linux Root Partition using Zerofree

This article discussed about how we can reclaim the free space for linux root partition that was implemented using thin provisioned disks in Linux VMware virtual machine (VM). Common advantages by implementing thin provisioned disks in VMware is the administrator are able to over-allocate storage because the provisioned thin disks consume only the space used. The concept of thin provisioning disk disregard either the operating system running on Linux or Windows. However, by using thin provisioned disks, you will find that vmdk file size still expands over the time whenever you install, uninstall or delete applications in VM. You will noticed that the vmdk file size does not shrink or return to its previous size. When this happens to the linux VM, we need to use zerofree utility to reclaim and shrink the free space. The following steps is mainly to reclaim free space for linux root partition, tested in CentOS 7 and RHEL 7.

1. Install “zerofree” on your virtualbox guest machine.

2. Run this command to boot into rescue mode :

# systemctl rescue

3. In the rescue mode, enter root password :

4. Mount the root partition as read-only. Then run zerofree command. Once zerofree command complete, kindly reboot the VM.

reclaim-freespace-zerofree-1

# mount -o remount, ro /dev/mapper/centos-root
# zerofree -v /dev/mapper/centos-root

5. Do a virtual clone V2V using vCenter or vmkfstool command. You will notice the vmdk size reduce to only the space used.