How to Install MySQL on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7

how to install mysql
In this quick guide, i will show you how to install MYSQL on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7 instead of MariaDB.

MariaDB is the default implementation of MySQL in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (RHEL 7) or CentOS 7.

MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL database project, and provides a replacement for MySQL.

However, in some cases, you still need to install MySQL as your deployment database on you linux server.

How to Install MySQL on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7

1. Remove MariaDB installation :
If you server already have MariaDB database server installed, i would suggest you remove it first to avoid conflict.

# sudo yum remove mariadb-server -y

2. Download MySQL 5.7 repo file :

# wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-8.noarch.rpm

3. Install MySQL 5.7 repo file :

# sudo rpm -ivh mysql57-community-release-el7-8.noarch.rpm

4. Install MySQL 5.7 database server :

# sudo yum install mysql-server -y

5. How to Start MySQL server in linux :

# sudo systemctl start mysqld

6. Enable auto start at boot :

# sudo systemctl enable mysqld

7. At the initial start up of the MySQL database server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

a) The server is initialized.
b) An SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.
c) The validate_password plugin is installed and enabled.
d) A superuser account ‘root’@’localhost is created. The initial root password created can be found in the error log file. You can get the password by issue the following command :

# sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
2016-06-19T23:08:09.439963Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: sj-mMM;o%6Ll

8. Harden MySQL Server

Run the mysql_secure_installation script to address several security concerns in a default MySQL installation.

You will be given the choice to change the MySQL root password, remove anonymous user accounts, disable root logins outside of localhost, and remove test databases. It is recommended that you answer yes to these options.

# sudo mysql_secure_installation

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root:
The 'validate_password' plugin is installed on the server.
The subsequent steps will run with the existing configuration
of the plugin.
Using existing password for root.

Estimated strength of the password: 50
Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : yes

New password:

Re-enter new password:

Estimated strength of the password: 50
Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : no

 ... skipping.
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y
Success.

All done!

Resource : http://dev.mysql.com/

How to Enable and Grant Remote Access to MySQL Database Server

For reasons of security, remote access to MySQL database server is disabled by default because they are considered potential security threats. However, due to some reason, it is necessary to allow access from a remote location or web server. Let assume that we are making connection from remote web server IP called 192.168.0.3 for database called db1 for user user1 at remote MySQL server, 192.168.0.2, then we need to grant access to this IP address.

If the remote access is not enable you will get this error :

ERROR 1130 (HY000): Host ‘192.168.0.3’ is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server

IP Adress 1 : 192.168.0.2 – MySQL Server
IP Adress 2 : 192.168.0.3 – Web Server (Nginx or Apache)

Steps to Enable and Grant Remote Access to MySQL Database Server

1. Edit the my.cnf file :

# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Comment out or remove below line :

#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1

2. The following command will allow access to the MySQL database(192.168.0.2) from a remote web server IP address(192.168.0.3):

mysql> create user 'user1'@'192.168.0.3' identified by 'PASSWORD';
mysql> grant all on db1.* to 'user1'@'192.168.0.3';

3. Test the connection from the remote web server :

# mysql -u user1 -pPASSWORD -h 192.168.0.2

4. Verify the user privileges for user1 :

mysql> select * from information_schema.user_privileges where grantee like "'user1'%";

5. In case you want to revoke all options the access from all machine or web server(192.168.0.3) only :

mysql> revoke all privileges, grant option from 'user1'@'%';
mysql> revoke all privileges, grant option from 'user1'@'192.168.0.3';

database

How to Calculate and List Sizes of MySQL / MariaDB Databases

Question :
I am finding the best way to calculate and list sizes of MySQL or MariaDB Databases ?

Answer :

In order to achive this, please do the following.

1. Enter to mysql root console:

# mysql -u root -p

2. Run the following SQL select query to calculate and list the sizes of all available databases in MySQL or MariaDB.

MariaDB [(none)]> SELECT table_schema AS "DB Name", SUM(data_length + index_length) / 1024 / 1024 AS "Size (MB)" FROM information_schema.TABLES GROUP BY table_schema;

Output :

+--------------------+-------------+
| DB Name            | Size (MB)   |
+--------------------+-------------+
| wordpressdb        | 36.79408455 |
| information_schema |  0.14062500 |
| mysql              |  0.62723351 |
| oscommercedb       |  1.42187500 |
| performance_schema |  0.00000000 |
+--------------------+-------------+
5 rows in set (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>

linux-banner

How to Change the WordPress URLs in MySQL Database

Before this I have experienced issues in wordpress migration of servers moving from the test server with an unregistered domain URL (www.ehowstuff.local) to the new virtual private server (VPS) with a registered domain (www.ehowstuff.com). After struggling to do research on google, I found the steps below that save a lot of time.

Step 1 : Update ‘siteurl’ and ‘home’ :

Select the WordPress database :

mysql> use wordpressdb;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed

Check current value for ‘siteurl’ and ‘home’ :

mysql> SELECT option_name, option_value FROM wp_options WHERE option_name IN ('siteurl', 'home');
+-------------+----------------------------+
| option_name | option_value               |
+-------------+----------------------------+
| home        | http://www.ehowstuff.local |
| siteurl     | http://www.ehowstuff.local |
+-------------+----------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Update the value for ‘siteurl’ and ‘home’ :

mysql> UPDATE wp_options SET option_value = 'https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto' WHERE option_name IN ('siteurl', 'home');
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 2  Changed: 2  Warnings: 0

Check the updated value for ‘siteurl’ and ‘home’ :

mysql> SELECT option_name, option_value FROM wp_options WHERE option_name IN ('siteurl', 'home');

+-------------+--------------------------+
| option_name | option_value             |
+-------------+--------------------------+
| home        | https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto |
| siteurl     | https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto |
+-------------+--------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Optionally you can use below query to achieve step 1:

mysql> UPDATE wp_options SET option_value = replace(option_value, 'http://www.ehowstuff.local', 'https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto') WHERE option_name = 'home' OR option_name = 'siteurl';

Step 2 : Update the guid value in wp_posts table :

mysql> UPDATE wp_posts SET guid = replace(guid, 'http://www.ehowstuff.local','https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto');

Step 3 : Update the post_content value in wp_posts table :

mysql> UPDATE wp_posts SET post_content = replace(post_content, 'http://www.ehowstuff.local', 'https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto');

Step 4 : Update the meta_value value in wp_postmeta table :

mysql> UPDATE wp_postmeta SET meta_value = replace(meta_value, 'http://www.ehowstuff.local', 'https://webhostinggeeks.com/howto');

wp-wall

How to Install Nginx 1.6.2 with PageSpeed on Linux CentOS 6

This article will show you the steps to install Nginx and ngx_pagespeed module on Linux CentOS 6 virtual private server (VPS). By using ngx_pagespeed, the speed of your website will be faster without installing any additional applications such as wordpress plugin and so on. This is because ngx_pagespeed have some Nginx module which rewrites your webpages to make them faster. Below steps has been tested on CentOS 6.5 and CentOS 6.6.

1. Install nginx PageSpeed dependencies :

yum install gcc-c++ pcre-devel pcre-devel zlib-devel make unzip openssl-devel

2. Download and install ngx_pagespeed and PSOL (PageSpeed Optimization Libraries) source code :

mkdir -p /etc/nginx/modules
cd /etc/nginx/modules
wget https://github.com/pagespeed/ngx_pagespeed/archive/release-1.9.32.2-beta.zip
unzip release-1.9.32.2-beta.zip
cd ngx_pagespeed-release-1.9.32.2-beta/
wget https://dl.google.com/dl/page-speed/psol/1.9.32.2.tar.gz
tar xzvf 1.9.32.2.tar.gz

3. Download NGINX :

cd /etc/nginx/
wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.6.2.tar.gz
tar xzvf nginx-1.6.2.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.6.2/

4. Compile and prepare environment for NGINX with ngx_pagespeed module support :

./configure --add-module=/etc/nginx/modules/ngx_pagespeed-release-1.9.32.2-beta --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-file-aio --with-http_spdy_module --without-mail_pop3_module --without-mail_imap_module --without-mail_smtp_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -m64 -mtune=generic'

At the end of installation, you will get the following message :

  nginx path prefix: "/etc/nginx"
  nginx binary file: "/usr/sbin/nginx"
  nginx configuration prefix: "/etc/nginx"
  nginx configuration file: "/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
  nginx pid file: "/var/run/nginx.pid"
  nginx error log file: "/var/log/nginx/error.log"
  nginx http access log file: "/var/log/nginx/access.log"
  nginx http client request body temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/client_temp"
  nginx http proxy temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp"
  nginx http fastcgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp"
  nginx http uwsgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp"
  nginx http scgi temporary files: "/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp"

Note : Keep this information as you will need it if you plan to uninstall the NGINX.

Building the NGINX with ngx_pagespeed :

make

Install NGINX with ngx_pagespeed to the system :

make install

5. Create a Cache directory which will be written by Nginx.

mkdir /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache
chown nginx:nginx /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache

6. Configure NGINX (nginx.conf) and turn on pagespeed module :

..
..
pagespeed on;
pagespeed FileCachePath /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache;

# enable CoreFilters
pagespeed RewriteLevel CoreFilters;

# enable additional filter(s) selectively
pagespeed EnableFilters collapse_whitespace;
pagespeed EnableFilters lazyload_images;
pagespeed EnableFilters insert_dns_prefetch;
pagespeed EnableFilters prioritize_critical_css;
pagespeed EnableFilters collapse_whitespace;
..
..

7. Create an init script for Nginx.

vi /etc/init.d/nginx
#!/bin/sh
#
# nginx        Startup script for nginx
#
# chkconfig: - 85 15
# processname: nginx
# config: /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# config: /etc/sysconfig/nginx
# pidfile: /var/run/nginx.pid
# description: nginx is an HTTP and reverse proxy server
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: nginx
# Required-Start: $local_fs $remote_fs $network
# Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $network
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: start and stop nginx
### END INIT INFO

# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions

if [ -L $0 ]; then
    initscript=`/bin/readlink -f $0`
else
    initscript=$0
fi

sysconfig=`/bin/basename $initscript`

if [ -f /etc/sysconfig/$sysconfig ]; then
    . /etc/sysconfig/$sysconfig
fi

nginx=${NGINX-/usr/sbin/nginx}
prog=`/bin/basename $nginx`
conffile=${CONFFILE-/etc/nginx/nginx.conf}
lockfile=${LOCKFILE-/var/lock/subsys/nginx}
pidfile=${PIDFILE-/var/run/nginx.pid}
SLEEPMSEC=${SLEEPMSEC-200000}
UPGRADEWAITLOOPS=${UPGRADEWAITLOOPS-5}
RETVAL=0

start() {
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "

    daemon --pidfile=${pidfile} ${nginx} -c ${conffile}
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch ${lockfile}
    return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc -p ${pidfile} ${prog}
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f ${lockfile} ${pidfile}
}

reload() {
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc -p ${pidfile} ${prog} -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}

upgrade() {
    oldbinpidfile=${pidfile}.oldbin

    configtest -q || return
    echo -n $"Starting new master $prog: "
    killproc -p ${pidfile} ${prog} -USR2
    echo

    for i in `/usr/bin/seq $UPGRADEWAITLOOPS`; do
        /bin/usleep $SLEEPMSEC
        if [ -f ${oldbinpidfile} -a -f ${pidfile} ]; then
            echo -n $"Graceful shutdown of old $prog: "
            killproc -p ${oldbinpidfile} ${prog} -QUIT
            RETVAL=$?
            echo
            return
        fi
    done

    echo $"Upgrade failed!"
    RETVAL=1
}

configtest() {
    if [ "$#" -ne 0 ] ; then
        case "$1" in
            -q)
                FLAG=$1
                ;;
            *)
                ;;
        esac
        shift
    fi
    ${nginx} -t -c ${conffile} $FLAG
    RETVAL=$?
    return $RETVAL
}


rh_status() {
    status -p ${pidfile} ${nginx}
}

# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
    start)
        rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1 && exit 0
        start
        ;;
    stop)
        stop
        ;;
    status)
        rh_status
        RETVAL=$?
        ;;
    restart)
        configtest -q || exit $RETVAL
        stop
        start
        ;;
    upgrade)
        rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1 || exit 0
        upgrade
        ;;
    condrestart|try-restart)
        if rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1; then
            stop
            start
        fi
        ;;
    force-reload|reload)
        reload
        ;;
    configtest)
        configtest
        ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|condrestart|try-restart|force-reload|upgrade|reload|status|help|configtest}"
        RETVAL=2
esac

exit $RETVAL
chmod 0755 /etc/init.d/nginx
chown root:root /etc/init.d/nginx

8. Start nginx and make it autostart at boot :

service nginx start
chkconfig nginx on

9. Check NGINX version and installed modules :

$ nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.6.2
built by gcc 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-11) (GCC)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --add-module=/etc/nginx/modules/ngx_pagespeed-release-1.9.32.2-beta --prefix=/etc/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gunzip_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-file-aio --with-http_spdy_module --without-mail_pop3_module --without-mail_imap_module --without-mail_smtp_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g -pipe -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions -fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -m64 -mtune=generic'

10. Testing the pagespeed module:

curl -I http://www.ehowstuff.local

You should see X-Page-Speed version in the headers:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Connection: keep-alive
Vary: Accept-Encoding
X-Pingback: http://www.ehowstuff.local/xmlrpc.php
Date: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 06:41:14 GMT
X-Page-Speed: 1.9.32.2-4321
Cache-Control: max-age=0, no-cache

How to Secure MySQL Server on CentOS 6.5 / CentOS 6.6

MySQL is the world’s most popular open source database and its the world’s second most widely used open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). MySQL default installation is not securely configured. For the sake of security, we need to run mysql_secure_installation wizard manually in order to perform basic MYSQL hardening on Virtual private server (VPS). The following steps has been tested on MySQL Community Server 5.5.39 that was running on CentOS 6.5 and CentOS 6.6.

1. Run mysql_secure_installation wizard :

[root@vps ]# mysql_secure_installation




NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!


In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...



All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!

2. Set “bind-address” parameter within the “[mysqld]” section in /etc/my.conf. Configure this to your VPS local loopback network device, which is “127.0.0.1”. please make sure that you only perform this step if you confirm no other server will need to access the database on your VPS.

[root@vps ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
..
bind-address = 127.0.0.1
..

3. Restart your mysqld server :

[root@vps ~]# service mysqld restart

4. Verify the mysqld port listen to 127.0.0.1 only :

[root@vps ~]# netstat -plunt | grep 3306
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:3306              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      8224/mysqld

How to Install Lighttpd With PHP5 (PHP-FPM) and MySQL on CentOS 6.5

Lighttpd (pronounced “lighty”) is an open-source web server as an alternative to Apache and Nginx. It is a secure, flexible, fast and designed for speed-critical environments. It has a low memory footprint and can handle large number of connections in one server especially for busier sites.

PHP is an acronym for “PHP Hypertext Preprocessor”; PHP is a widely-used server-side scripting language executed on the server.

PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for sites of any size, especially busier sites.

MySQL is a popular database solution for use in web applications.

This post will show you how to install Lighttpd With PHP5 (PHP-FPM) and MySQL on CentOS 6.5 VPS or dedicated server.

1. EPEL repository is another extra repository that creates, maintains, and manages a high quality set of additional packages for Enterprise Linux, including, but not limited to, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and CentOS server. How to Configure EPEL Repository on CentOS.

2. Install Lighttpd, MySQL and PHP5 work in Lighttpd through PHP-FPM :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# yum install lighttpd php php-fpm lighttpd-fastcgi php-mysql mysql mysql-server -y

3. Configure Lighttpd :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
server.use-ipv6 = "enable"

Change to :

server.use-ipv6 = "disable"

4. Make lighttpd start at boot and also start lighttpd service:

[root@centos6-05 ~]# chkconfig --levels 235 lighttpd on
[root@centos6-05 ~]# /etc/init.d/lighttpd start

Browse your web server and Lighttpd welcome page should be displayed :
lighttpd-centos6.5-1

5. Configure PHP to work in Lighttpd through PHP-FPM :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# vi /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

Enable PHP-FPM use a TCP connection instead of unix socket :

;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000

Configure user and group to lighttpd :

..
..
; RPM: apache Choosed to be able to access some dir as httpd
user = lighttpd
; RPM: Keep a group allowed to write in log dir.
group = lighttpd
..
..

6. Make php-fpm start at boot and also start the php-fpm service :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# chkconfig --levels 235 php-fpm on
[root@centos6-05 ~]# /etc/init.d/php-fpm start

7. Open and modify /etc/php.ini :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# vi /etc/php.ini

Uncomment the line cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

..
; cgi.fix_pathinfo provides *real* PATH_INFO/PATH_TRANSLATED support for CGI.  PHP's
; previous behaviour was to set PATH_TRANSLATED to SCRIPT_FILENAME, and to not grok
; what PATH_INFO is.  For more information on PATH_INFO, see the cgi specs.  Setting
; this to 1 will cause PHP CGI to fix its paths to conform to the spec.  A setting
; of zero causes PHP to behave as before.  Default is 1.  You should fix your scripts
; to use SCRIPT_FILENAME rather than PATH_TRANSLATED.
; http://www.php.net/manual/en/ini.core.php#ini.cgi.fix-pathinfo
cgi.fix_pathinfo=1
..

8. Open and modify /etc/lighttpd/modules.conf :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# vi /etc/lighttpd/modules.conf

Uncomment the line include “conf.d/fastcgi.conf”:

..
## FastCGI (mod_fastcgi)
##
include "conf.d/fastcgi.conf"
..

9. Open and modify /etc/lighttpd/conf.d/fastcgi.conf :

Add below fastcgi.server at bottom of the file :

..
fastcgi.server += ( ".php" =>
        ((
                "host" => "127.0.0.1",
                "port" => "9000",
                "broken-scriptfilename" => "enable"
        ))
)
..

10. Reload the PHP-FPM and Lighttpd service :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# /etc/init.d/php-fpm reload
[root@centos6-05 ~]# /etc/init.d/lighttpd reload

11. Since MySQl has been install, dont forget to make MySQL start at boot and start the MySQL service :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
[root@centos6-05 ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start

12. Create info.php under ligghttpd document root :

[root@centos6-05 ~]# vi /var/www/lighttpd/info.php
<?php
phpinfo();
?>

Browse your page http://IP-Adress/info.php. Thats all.

How to Install and Configure Apache2, PHP and MySQL 5.6 on Ubuntu 14.04

LAMP stack is a group of open source software that installed together to let you run a server to host dynamic websites. “L” stand for Linux, “A” stand for Apache (to host Web server), “M” stand for MySQL(to store database) and “P” stand for PHP(to process dynamic content). With the release of Ubuntu 14.04 on April 17 2014, i would share the steps to setup Apache2, PHP and MySQL on Ubuntu 14.04 in order to run a dynamic websites. This may useful for those who plan to run their websites on Virtual private server (VPS) or dedicated server.

1. Install Apache2, MySQL and PHP :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 php5-cgi libapache2-mod-php5 php5-common php-pear mysql-server-5.6 -y

During this installation, you will require to set MySQL’s root password :
1

2

2. Backup the original Apache2 configuration file :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo cp -p /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf.bak

3. Open security.conf and modify the OS to become Prod. For security reason, Prod will tells apache to only return Apache in the Server header, returned on every page request.

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf
..
..
ServerTokens Prod
..
..
ServerSignature Off
..
..

4. Add file extension that can be access :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf
<IfModule mod_dir.c>
        DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.pl index.php index.xhtml index.htm
</IfModule>

5. Specify server name :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
# Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
#
#ServerRoot "/etc/apache2"
ServerName ubuntu14.ehowstuff.local
#
# The accept se

6. Specify webmaster’s email :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf

        ServerAdmin webmaster@ubuntu14.ehowstuff.local
        DocumentRoot /var/www/html

7. Restart web server apache2 :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
 * Restarting web server apache2                                                             [ OK ]

8. Near line 220: add extension for PHP :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/mime.conf
..
..
AddHandler php5-script .php
..
..

9. Comment and add your timezone :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
..
..
date.timezone = "Asia/Kuala Lumpur"
..
..

After change php.ini, restart the apache :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
 * Restarting web server apache2                                                             [ OK ]

10. Connect to MySQL :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 36
Server version: 5.6.17-0ubuntu0.14.04.1 (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

11. Show user info :

mysql> select user,host,password from mysql.user;
+------------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
| user             | host      | password                                  |
+------------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
| root             | localhost | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| root             | ubuntu14  | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| root             | 127.0.0.1 | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| root             | ::1       | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| debian-sys-maint | localhost | *9C063813F4CC3C2E09995B0D043C7375C5E5538A |
+------------------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

12. Show databases :

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

Done!!

How to Setup WordPress on Nginx, PHP-FPM and MySQL

WordPress website can be served using Apache or NGINX. Apache is the most popular Web server and most widely used for WordPress blogging platform. Apache is a great option and has served many of the world’s largest Web sites. Alternate web server for Apache is Nginx, pronounced “Engine X”. Nginx is an open source web server and a reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols. Many websites and the web developer have moved to NGINX because it’s scalable, low resources, can handle many users concurrency and good website performance. For largest and busiest website, i would suggest you to host you websites and blog on Virtual Private Server (VPS) or dedicated server and run NGINX as a web server. Assumed that MySQL has been prepared and configured for WordPress and was tested on CentOS 6.5.

1. Prepared Nginx Repository :

[root@vps ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

2. Install NGINX, PHP, php-fpm amd MySQL server :

[root@vps ~]# yum install nginx php php-cli php-mysql php-gd php-xml php-fpm mysql mysql-server -y

3. Open /etc/php.ini and set cgi.fix_pathinfo=0:

[root@vps ~]# vi /etc/php.ini
..
..
; cgi.fix_pathinfo provides *real* PATH_INFO/PATH_TRANSLATED support for CGI.  PHP's
; previous behaviour was to set PATH_TRANSLATED to SCRIPT_FILENAME, and to not grok
; what PATH_INFO is.  For more information on PATH_INFO, see the cgi specs.  Setting
; this to 1 will cause PHP CGI to fix its paths to conform to the spec.  A setting
; of zero causes PHP to behave as before.  Default is 1.  You should fix your scripts
; to use SCRIPT_FILENAME rather than PATH_TRANSLATED.
; http://www.php.net/manual/en/ini.core.php#ini.cgi.fix-pathinfo
cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
..
..

4. Set date.timezone in /etc/php.ini :

[Date]
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
; http://www.php.net/manual/en/datetime.configuration.php#ini.date.timezone
date.timezone = "Asia/Kuala_Lumpur"

5. This server configuration was setup for PHP-FPM use a UNIX Socket.

[root@vps ~]# vim /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf

Specify .sock path :

..
listen = /var/run/php-fpm.sock
..

Change user to run php-fpm :

..
user = nginx
..
..
group = nginx
..

6. Backup NGINX config file :

[root@vps ~]# cp -p /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.bak

7. Create sites-available folder under /etc/nginx :

[root@vps ~]# mkdir /etc/nginx/sites-available

8. Adjust NGINX Worker Processes & Connections. NGINX workers equal the number of processors :

Check Number CPU on your VPS server :

[root@vps ~]# lscpu | grep '^CPU(s)'
CPU(s):                1

or

[root@vps ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor
processor       : 0
..
worker_processes  1;
..
..
worker_connections  1024;
..

Configure nginx.conf as below :

user  nginx;
worker_processes  1;

error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    keepalive_timeout  65;

    gzip  on;
    gzip_types text/css text/x-component application/x-javascript application/javascript  text/javascript text/x-js text/richtext image/svg+xml text/plain text/xsd text/xsl text/xml image/x-icon;

    
    include /etc/nginx/sites-available/*.conf;
}

9. Create common.conf and wordpress.conf under /etc/nginx/conf.d/ folder :

[root@vps ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/common.conf
[root@vps ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/wordpress.conf
[root@vps ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/common.conf

Add the following :

# Global configuration file.
# ESSENTIAL : Configure Nginx Listening Port
listen 80;
# ESSENTIAL : Default file to serve. If the first file isn't found,
index index.php index.html index.htm;
# ESSENTIAL : no favicon logs
location = /favicon.ico {
    log_not_found off;
    access_log off;
}
# ESSENTIAL : robots.txt
location = /robots.txt {
    allow all;
    log_not_found off;
    access_log off;
}
# ESSENTIAL : Configure 404 Pages
error_page 404 /404.html;
# ESSENTIAL : Configure 50x Pages
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
        root /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }
# SECURITY : Deny all attempts to access hidden files .abcde
location ~ /\. {
    deny all;
}
# PERFORMANCE : Set expires headers for static files and turn off logging.
location ~* ^.+\.(js|css|swf|xml|txt|ogg|ogv|svg|svgz|eot|otf|woff|mp4|ttf|rss|atom|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|ppt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf)$ {
    access_log off; log_not_found off; expires 30d;

Explanation :

listen 80; 

-Specifies the listening port of the server.

index index.php index.html index.htm;

-Specifies the default file to serve (WordPress index.php). For HTML sites, please include index.html & index.htm;.

location = /robots.txt {allow all;} 

-Allows the access to robots.txt

Create wordpress.conf :

[root@vps ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/wordpress.conf

Add the following :

# WORDPRESS : Rewrite rules, sends everything through index.php and keeps the appended query string intact
location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri&$args;
}

# SECURITY : Deny all attempts to access PHP Files in the uploads directory
location ~* /(?:uploads|files)/.*\.php$ {
    deny all;
}
# REQUIREMENTS : Enable PHP Support
location ~ \.php$ {
    # SECURITY : Zero day Exploit Protection
    try_files $uri =404;
    # ENABLE : Enable PHP, listen fpm sock
    fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
    fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm.sock;
    fastcgi_index index.php;
    include fastcgi_params;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
}
# PLUGINS : Enable Rewrite Rules for Yoast SEO SiteMap
rewrite ^/sitemap_index\.xml$ /index.php?sitemap=1 last;
rewrite ^/([^/]+?)-sitemap([0-9]+)?\.xml$ /index.php?sitemap=$1&sitemap_n=$2 last;

Explanation :

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri&$args 

-rewrite rule required to allow you to choose your custom permalink structure on WordPress.

location ~* /(?:uploads|files)/.*\.php$ {deny all;} 

-this will prevent malicious code from being uploaded and executed from the WordPress media directory.

location ~ \.php$ {...}

-since WordPress is a php site, we need to tell NGINX how to a pass our php scripts to PHP5.

try_files $uri =404; 

-this is a security rule, you only want to either serve a determined php file or go to a 404 error.

10. Create a virtual server under /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory :

[root@vps ~]# vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/ehowstuff.local.conf

Assumed that you want to configure a WordPress site with www.ehowstuff.local domain, please setup as below :

server {
    server_name ehowstuff.local;
    rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://www.ehowstuff.local/$1 permanent;
}

server {
        server_name www.ehowstuff.local;
        root /var/www/html/wordpress;
        access_log /var/log/nginx/www.ehowstuff.local.access.log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/www.ehowstuff.local.error.log;
        include conf.d/common.conf;
        include conf.d/wordpress.conf;
}

Please change the following for virtual server ehowstuff.local.conf :

server_name: Define the server block for the URL.
root: Where you keep your website file
access log & error log: Paths for your logs

11. Start php-fpm and nginx :

[root@vps ~]# /etc/init.d/php-fpm start
Starting php-fpm:                                          [  OK  ]
[root@vps ~]# /etc/init.d/nginx start
Starting nginx:                                            [  OK  ]

12. Make php-fpm and nginx start at boot :

[root@vps ~]# chkconfig php-fpm on
[root@vps ~]# chkconfig nginx on

13. Verify that the required port already present.

[root@vps ~]# netstat -plunt
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111                 0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1042/rpcbind
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      3174/nginx
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1096/sshd
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      3394/mysqld
tcp        0      0 :::111                      :::*                        LISTEN      1042/rpcbind
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1096/sshd
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111                 0.0.0.0:*                               1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:793                 0.0.0.0:*                               1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 :::111                      :::*                                    1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 :::793                      :::*                                    1042/rpcbind

How to Display processlist in MySQL

MySQL databases are great database in internet. It’s commonly used in WordPress and Drupal blog. When you are monitoring the performance of a WordPress or Drupal blog, do not forget to monitor the MySQL queries using existing tools including mytop, mtop and also running a SHOW PROCESSLIST from the mysql client command line. It will show all the queries are running and how long they take. The command SHOW PROCESSLIST actually shows you which threads are running in realtime. You can also can get this information from the mysqladmin processlist command and from the INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROCESSLIST table. If you have the PROCESS privilege, you can see all threads. Otherwise, you can see only your own threads. However, if you really need to investigate or monitor overall website performance issue, please also look at other aspects of the system such memory and swapping as well as CPU utilization.

Here is an example of SHOW PROCESSLIST output:

show processlist;
mysql> show processlist;
+----+---------------+-------------------+-------------+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User          | Host              | db          | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+---------------+-------------------+-------------+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 23 | root          | localhost         | NULL        | Query   |    0 | NULL  | show processlist |
| 46 | wordpressuser | 192.168.0.5:38876 | wordpressdb | Sleep   |   69 |       | NULL             |
| 51 | root          | localhost         | wordpressdb | Sleep   |   34 |       | NULL             |
+----+---------------+-------------------+-------------+---------+------+-------+------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Alternately you can run as below :

mysql> SHOW PROCESSLIST\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
     Id: 23
   User: root
   Host: localhost
     db: NULL
Command: Query
   Time: 0
  State: NULL
   Info: SHOW PROCESSLIST
*************************** 2. row ***************************
     Id: 46
   User: wordpressuser
   Host: 192.168.0.5:38876
     db: wordpressdb
Command: Sleep
   Time: 73
  State:
   Info: NULL
*************************** 3. row ***************************
     Id: 51
   User: root
   Host: localhost
     db: wordpressdb
Command: Sleep
   Time: 38
  State:
   Info: NULL
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

You have an option to run processlist in mysqladmin command. Below example show processlist every two second :

mysqladmin -u root -p -i 2 processlist

Example :

[root@mysql-server ~]# mysqladmin -u root -p -i 2 processlist
Enter password:
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User | Host      | db | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 6  | root | localhost |    | Query   | 0    |       | show processlist |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+

+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User | Host      | db | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 6  | root | localhost |    | Query   | 0    |       | show processlist |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+

+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User | Host      | db | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 6  | root | localhost |    | Query   | 0    |       | show processlist |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+

+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| Id | User | Host      | db | Command | Time | State | Info             |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+
| 6  | root | localhost |    | Query   | 0    |       | show processlist |
+----+------+-----------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+

How to Secure your MySQL On VPS or Dedicated Server

Running a WordPress on a Virtual private Server or dedicated server is not an easy as running a WordPress on shared hosting server. There are a few things need to install and configure. Basically you will need web server(Apache, Nginx or Lighttpd) and database server(MySQL). The most popular database for WordPress platform is MySQL. Installation of the MySQL is very easy, but most of the webmaster will facing difficulties on the configuration part. Therefore i have prepared the article that will cover configuring and securing your MySQL on Virtual private Server(VPS) or on dedicated server. MySQL database is actually the brain of your website or blog. It will store all the configuration information, the posts, comments, login information, user information and etc. This article assumed that you already installed the MySQL server on your VPS or dedicated server and then you may proceed to configure and harden it as below :

1. Run pre-install mysql script, mysql_secure_installation. This will do the following :

a) Set the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL root user without the proper authorization.
b) Remove anonymous users
c) Remove test database and access to it
d) Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from ‘localhost’. Disallow root login remotely if you want. However i prefer to disallow it later

[root@mysql-server ~]# /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation




NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!


In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...



All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!

2. List of MySQL users, make sure all users have password :

mysql> SELECT User,Host,Password FROM mysql.user;
+---------------+-------------+-------------------------------------------+
| User          | Host        | Password                                  |
+---------------+-------------+-------------------------------------------+
| root          | localhost   | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| root          | mysql       | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| root          | 127.0.0.1   | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| wordpressuser | 192.168.0.5 | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
+---------------+-------------+-------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3. Set a strong password for the MySQL root account and also existing user account :

Existing user account :

mysql> select Host,User,Password from user;
+-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Host        | User          | Password                                  |
+-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| localhost   | root          | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| mysql       | root          | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| 127.0.0.1   | root          | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
| 192.168.0.5 | wordpressuser | *2470C0C06DEE42FD1618BB99005ADCA2EC9D1E19 |
+-------------+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Set new strong password :

mysql> set password for 'root'@'localhost'=password('newstrongpassword');
mysql> set password for 'root'@'127.0.0.1'=password('newstrongpassword');
mysql> set password for 'wordpressuser'@'192.168.0.5'=password('newstrongpassword');

4. Make sure logging such as general_log, slow_query_log and log-error has been enabled in mysql :

[root@mysql-server ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
..
..
..
general_log_file=/var/log/mysql/mysqld.log
general_log=1
slow_query_log_file=/var/log/mysql/mysqld.slow.log
slow_query_log=1

[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/var/log/mysql/mysqld.error.log
...
..

Create folder for mysql log and change the folder owner to mysql:

[root@mysql-server ~]# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/log/mysql

Verify the logs :

[root@mysql-server ~]# ll /var/log/mysql
total 12
-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql 3547 Apr  7 16:57 mysqld.error.log
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  373 Apr  7 16:58 mysqld.log
-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql  174 Apr  7 16:57 mysqld.slow.log

This Will help administrators to monitor critical events and helps in troubleshooting.

Reference : http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/server-logs.html

Once you have done above configuration, make sure yo restart the mysqld service :

[root@mysql-server ~]# service mysqld restart
Stopping mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]
Starting mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]

Note : This configuration and hardening practice is very basic, you can fine tune your database based on your expected security level and also you can implement host iptables, physical firewall protection and operating system hardening in order to protect the MySQL server. You may refer to “Securing and Hardening Linux Dedicated Server