WordPress is free web blogging software and open source content management system (CMS) which based on PHP and MySQL platform. You can run and install WorPress on shared Web hosting service, on virtual private server (VPS) or if you need high performance WordPress blog which can serve many concurrent users at a time, you can choose dedicated server for it. This post covers the steps how to install WordPress on linux CentOS 6.4. It was assumed that this CentOS 6.4 already installed with PHP, apache and MySQL server.
1. Login as a root, download latest wordpress file :
6. Create user “newwordpressuser” with password “newwordpresspassword” :
mysql> CREATE USER 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'newwordpresspassword';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.07 sec)
7. Grant all privileges to “newwordpress” to user “newwordpressuser” from localhost access :
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON newwordpress.* to newwordpressuser@localhost;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
8. Verify the granted access for user “newwordpressuser” :
mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost';
| Grants for newwordpressuser@localhost |
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*2E824B82B9B162C4283AA039118AD4C5248380DA' |
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `newwordpress`.* TO 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
9. Display the created database :
mysql> show databases;
| Database |
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| newwordpress |
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
10. Copy and rename wp-config-sample.php to wp-config.php:
[root@centos64 ~]# vi /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-config.php
12. Change below database details such as database’ name, database’ username, database’ password nand database’ hostname.
// ** MySQL settings - You can get this info from your web host ** //
/** The name of the database for WordPress */
/** MySQL database username */
/** MySQL database password */
/** MySQL hostname */
13. To install, navigate the browser to http://servername/wordpress/. http://192.168.2.64/wordpress/
14. To login, navigate the browser to http://servername/wordpress/wp-login.php :
Linux distributions are making this move because they perceive Oracle as both closing MySQL from open-source contributors and producing an inferior product.
Jaroslav Reznik, Red Hat’s Fedora project manager, said, “Recent changes made by Oracle indicate they are moving the MySQL project to be more closed. They are no longer publishing any useful information about security issues and they are not providing complete regression tests any more, and a very large fraction of the MySQL bug database is now not public.”
“MariaDB,” Reznik continued, “was founded by some of the original MySQL developers, has a more open-source attitude and an active community. We have found them to be much easier to work with, especially in regards to security matters.”
Be that as it may, for now Red Hat is not committing RHEL 7 to using MariaDB as its default DBMS.
Coggin would say that Red Hat has just unveiled the beta of Red Hat Software Collections 1.0, which includes a wide range of dynamic languages and database options including MariaDB version 5.5, MySQL version 5.5, and PostgreSQL version 9.2.
“Red Hat Software Collections 1.0 is offered to customers who have an active subscription to RHEL 6 and is offered with a three-year life-cycle. It will provide a vehicle to introduce the latest dynamic languages and databases on an independent release cycle from the operating system, but offered with the subscription. Red Hat Software Collections 1.0 is the first in a series of releases, and our plans are to also offer this with RHEL 7 as a vehicle to make dynamic languages and databases available for customers.”
[That said,] “We are also not in a position to confirm the features or databases planned for Red Hat Software Collections that will be offered with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. Despite not sharing the details, databases will be offered as part of the overall solution when Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 ships.”
“We also still don’t have a release date for RHEL 7.”
If Red Hat does make this move, it will be bad news for Oracle. Many companies run Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl (LAMP) server software stacks based on RHEL and its clones such as CentOS. Switching to MariaDB would end up cutting Oracle out of many companies’ Web servers and other LAMP-based servers.
Zimbra LDAP service running on OpenLDAP software. It is the directory service and identified when the Zimbra software is installed together with it’s own Zimbra schema. Zimbra LDAP service is used in Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) to store data for Zimbra Global configuration, user and authentication information, server, domain and class of service (COS) details. The following task will be very useful to zimbra system administrator in order to Verify the LDAP or slapd process in Zimbra. The command has been tested on ZCS 8.0.4 open-source version running on CentOS 6.4. I have documented these post as my own tutorial and also for my blog visitors reference.
1. How to verify ldap status in zimbra. Run as the zimbra user :
[zimbra@centos64 ~]$ ldap status
slapd running pid: 1351
2. How to verify that the slapd process is running or not :
Zimbra zmmailbox command is used for mailbox management such as admin-related commands, account-related commands, appoint-related commands, folder-related commands, message-related commands, tag-related commands and etc. It is the powerful command utility for zimbra administrator to perform daily account management or to perform zimbra account related issues. This post will brief you on how you can manage, get, create, delete and Empty the Folder in zimbra mailbox using zmmailbox command line interface (CLI). All the command has been tested in Zimbra Collaboration Suite 8.0.4 installed on CentOS 6.4.
Using zmmailbox command, enter to firstname.lastname@example.org mailbox :
Red Hat launched an enterprise Linux-based OpenStack platform today that provides a way to build out cloud services from either inside the data center or from a services provider.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux will integrate a vanilla version of OpenStack to create the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux OpenStack Platform. It will mean that Red Hat applications can run in an IaaS platform and provide support for web and mobile oriented applications that are more cloud aware. It will serve as the main platform for Red Hat’s cloud strategy.
The news is significant as it positions Red Hat as a clear leader for building out OpenStack clouds. The company is also using OpenStack to offer an alternative to the virtualized environments long dominated by VMware.
Red Hat has made a significant push in OpenStack over the last year. It is now the number one contributor to the open cloud effort. It will buttress its OpenStack cloud with a network of certified partners. It has also made investments in Mirantis, which will provide a services component to Red Hat OpenStack build outs.
The combination of Red Hat’s servers with OpenStack is intended to give developers more ability to differentiate the services they run while leaving Red Hat with the responsibility of maintaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and the OpenStack code.
With the news, Red Hat is also making a big push into the data center, VMware’s place of power in the enterprise. The new offering integrates the open-source KVM virtualization platform with Red Hat Linux. It will also include Red Hat CloudForms, a hybrid platform that will give customers a way to gain visibility and control over their virtual infrastructures. According to the company, it will let users deploy, monitor, and manage cloud services across Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, VMware vSphere, and other virtualization solutions, hypervisors, and platforms.
The enterprise has that sucking sound about it. You can almost hear the enterprise moving to the cloud. With that shift means a different power structure. Red Hat’s news today shows it has the technology and is positioned to be one of the winners in the battles ahead.
Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) is one of the popular open source email. It was created by Zimbra, Inc. Zimbra has released new version of ZCS 8.0.4. This new version consist of many new features and enhancements. This post describes the steps to upgrade existing ZCS 8.0.3 to ZCS 8.0.4 on CentOS 6.4 64 bit. I would recommend to to review the known issues that had been fixed before installing or upgrading.
Major Issues Fixed for 8.0.4
-Private events within shared calendars no longer show the organizer’s name. -Fixed the issue which caused stat-charts to not display properly. -When running zmproxypurge, all aliases are purged. -Support for Real-time Blackhole List (RBL) blocking using zimbraMtaRestrictionRBLs and attributes reject_rhsbl_client, reject_rhsbl_reverse_client, and reject_rhsbl_sender. -Fixed the issue which caused an error when using spell check if language preference is set to Japanese. -Fixed the issue which caused an error in Javac compilation for Java Server Pages (JSP). -Removed insecure SSL ciphers from default proxy configuration. Existing sites are recommended to review their enabled ciphers and set zimbraReverseProxySSLCiphers to RC4:HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5:!kEDH:!AD:!SSLv2 for maximum security. Note that some clients might need to be reconfigured if they were previously using a cipher which is now disabled. -Fixed the issue which caused a Language field to display as blank when selecting login options and only one language is available. The option now displays as text and not as a dropdown menu. -zmblobchk no longer reports missing blobs for appointments with multiple revisions. Changes work even if multiple revisions point to the same file blob. -Fixed the issue which caused autodiscovery to fail on iOS devices, due to iOS sending the request to /Autodiscover/ Autodiscover.xml rather than /autodiscover/ autodiscover.xml. -The administration console now has the option to automatically log users out when their Zimbra Web Client tab/window/browser is closed. This forces the user to log in to their next session. -New attribute zimbraMtaFallbackRelayHost is located in the administration console at Configure > Global Settings > MTA > Network and is shown as Relay MTA for external delivery. -The Distribution Lists folder is displayed in the list of address book folders only if the attribute is set to true. The default is True, but customers such as service providers might select to set this to False to turn this feature off. -The administration console supports DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) as a service. Any changes to the services on the Servers page in the administration console requires a restart of the server. -Resolved issue which caused deadlocks in SyncState.java.
[root@centos64 zcs-8.0.4_GA_5737.RHEL6_64.20130524120036]# ./install.sh --platform-override
Operations logged to /tmp/install.log.61733
Checking for existing installation...
ZCS upgrade from 8.0.3 to 8.0.4 will be performed.
Saving existing configuration file to /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig
PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE SOFTWARE.
ZIMBRA, INC. ("ZIMBRA") WILL ONLY LICENSE THIS SOFTWARE TO YOU IF YOU
FIRST ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. BY DOWNLOADING OR INSTALLING
THE SOFTWARE, OR USING THE PRODUCT, YOU ARE CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY
THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS
AGREEMENT, THEN DO NOT DOWNLOAD, INSTALL OR USE THE PRODUCT.
License Terms for the Zimbra Collaboration Suite:
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Oracle Binary Code License Agreement for the Java SE Platform Products
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designations are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle in the U.S. and other countries. This information must be placed on the Media label in such a manner as to only apply to the Oracle Software; (vi) You must clearly identify the Software as Oracle's product on the Media holder or Media label, and you may not state or imply that Oracle is responsible for any third-party software contained on the Media; (vii) You may not include any third party software on the Media which is intended to be a replacement or substitute for the Software; (viii) You agree to defend and indemnify Oracle and its licensors from and against any damages, costs, liabilities, settlement amounts and/or expenses (including attorneys' fees) incurred in connection with any claim, lawsuit or action by any third party that arises or results from the use or distribution of the Software and/or the Publication; ; and (ix) You shall provide Oracle with a written notice for each Publication; such notice shall include the following information: (1) title of Publication, (2) author(s), (3) date of Publication, and (4) ISBN or ISSN numbers. Such notice shall be sent to Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, California 94065 U.S.A , Attention: General Counsel.
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Use of the Commercial Features for any commercial or production purpose requires a separate license from Oracle. ?Commercial Features? means those features identified Table 1-1 (Commercial Features In Java SE Product Editions) of the Software documentation accessible at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html
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J. TERMINATION FOR INFRINGEMENT. Either party may terminate this Agreement immediately should any Software become, or in either party's opinion be likely to become, the subject of a claim of infringement of any intellectual property right.
K. INSTALLATION AND AUTO-UPDATE. The Software's installation and auto-update processes transmit a limited amount of data to Oracle (or its service provider) about those specific processes to help Oracle understand and optimize them. Oracle does not associate the data with personally identifiable information. You can find more information about the data Oracle collects as a result of your Software download at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html.
For inquiries please contact: Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway,
Redwood Shores, California 94065, USA.
Last updated May 17, 2011
Do you agree with the terms of the software license agreement? [N] y
Checking for prerequisites...
Checking for suggested prerequisites...
Prerequisite check complete.
Checking current number of databases...
Do you want to verify message store database integrity? [Y]
Verifying integrity of message store databases. This may take a while.
mysqld is alive
No errors found
Checking for installable packages
The Zimbra Collaboration Server appears already to be installed.
It can be upgraded with no effect on existing accounts,
or the current installation can be completely removed prior
to installation for a clean install.
Do you wish to upgrade? [Y]
Select the packages to install
Checking required space for zimbra-core
Checking space for zimbra-store
The system will be modified. Continue? [N] y
Shutting down zimbra mail
Backing up the ldap database...done.
Removing existing packages
Removing deployed webapp directories
Setting defaults from saved config in /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/config.save
Restoring existing configuration file from /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/localconfig.xml...done
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log
Upgrading from 8.0.3_GA_5664 to 8.0.4_GA_5737
Stopping zimbra services...done.
This appears to be 8.0.3_GA
Checking ldap status...not running.
Checking ldap status...not running.
Updating from 8.0.4_GA
Updating global config and COS's with attributes introduced after 8.0.3_GA...done.
Checking ldap status....not running.
Setting defaults from existing config...done.
Checking for port conflicts
Setting defaults from ldap...done.
Saving config in /opt/zimbra/config.11242...done.
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log
Setting local config values...done.
Initializing core config...Setting up CA...done.
Deploying CA to /opt/zimbra/conf/ca ...done.
Setting replication password...done.
Setting Postfix password...done.
Setting amavis password...done.
Setting nginx password...done.
Creating server entry for centos64.ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Setting Zimbra IP Mode...done.
Saving CA in ldap ...done.
Saving SSL Certificate in ldap ...done.
Setting spell check URL...done.
Setting service ports on centos64.ehowstuff.local...done.
Adding centos64.ehowstuff.local to zimbraMailHostPool in default COS...done.
Setting Keyboard Shortcut Preferences...done.
Setting MTA auth host...done.
Setting TimeZone Preference...done.
Initializing mta config...done.
Setting services on centos64.ehowstuff.local...done.
Creating user email@example.com...already exists.
Creating user firstname.lastname@example.org...already exists.
Creating user email@example.com...already exists.
Setting spam training and Anti-virus quarantine accounts...done.
Setting up syslog.conf...done.
Checking for deprecated zimlets...done.
Checking for network zimlets in LDAP...done.
Removing network zimlets...
Finished removing network zimlets.
Installing common zimlets...
Finished installing common zimlets.
Getting list of all zimlets...done.
Updating non-standard zimlets...
Finished updating non-standard zimlets.
Skipping creation of default domain GAL sync account - existing install detected.
You have the option of notifying Zimbra of your installation.
This helps us to track the uptake of the Zimbra Collaboration Server.
The only information that will be transmitted is:
The VERSION of zcs installed (8.0.4_GA_5737_RHEL6_64)
The ADMIN EMAIL ADDRESS created (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Notify Zimbra of your installation? [Yes] no
Setting up zimbra crontab...done.
Moving /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log to /opt/zimbra/log
Configuration complete - press return to exit
The zmprov tool can performs all provisioning tasks in Zimbra LDAP including creating accounts, aliases, domains, COS, distribution lists, and calendar resources.This zmprov is very powerful tool for zimbra administrator to perform daily task. Beside using command line interface (CLI), system administrator also can perform the following task from zimbra admin console. For CLI, the syntax is zmprov [cmd] [argument].
Since the beginning the Linux desktop era, users and pundits have been asking when the year of the Linux desktop would be here. This past week saw three different answers to that question with the release of Linux Mint 15, Fedora 19 beta and the closing Ubuntu bug #1.
1) Linux Mint 15 Olivia
After much anticipation the official final release of Linux Mint 15 debuted last week.
With Cinnamon 1.8 in particular there has been a lot of work done to improve the Linux desktop user interface.
“Cinnamon 1.8 represents 7 months of development and 1,075 commits. It features a lot of bug fixes but also brand new features and many improvements,” Linux Mint 15’s What’s New page states.
2) Fedora 19 Beta
Fedora is one of the most popular Linux distros around, primarily though due to its server heritage. With Fedora 19 the browser is making new inroad to try and court developers, makers and desktop users alike
“Developer’s Assistant is great for those new to development or even new to Linux, this tool helps you to get started on a code project with templates, samples, and toolchains for the languages of your choice,” the Fedora 19 Beta release announcement states. “Bonus: It lets you publish directly to GitHub.”
On the desktop side, GNOME 3.8 as well KDE 4.10 top the list of supported interfaces. Though others include LXDE and even MATE are supported with Fedora 19 as well.
3) Ubuntu Bug #1
With Linux Mint 15 and the Fedora 19 beta, the best of the Linux Planet is on display for desktop users. They both represent alternatives to Microsoft’s desktop dominance, which was identified back in 2004 by Ubuntu Linux founder Mark Shuttleworth as bug #1.
It’s a bug that has now been closed. Not because Ubuntu (or any other desktop distribution) has displaced Microsoft, but rather because the game has changed.
“Android may not be my or your first choice of Linux, but it is without doubt an open source platform that offers both practical and economic benefits to users and industry. So we have both competition, and good representation for open source, in personal computing,” Shuttleworth said.
Traceroute command is a network diagnostic tool for displaying the route packets take to network host or destination. It shows how long each hop will takes and how many hops that the packet requires to reach the specify destination. In linux, traceroute command is used while in windows and dos environment, they used tracert command. In this post i will show you how to install and how to use traceroute command to diagnose your IP network related issues. This steps has been tested on RHEL 6/7, CentOS 6/7 and Oracle Linux 6/7.
1. If your linux VPS or dedicated server does not installed with traceroute, it will return this warning :
# traceroute www.google.com
-bash: traceroute: command not found
Or you can verify the traceroute install or not by issue which command :
# which traceroute
/usr/bin/which: no traceroute in (/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin)
2. To install traceroute, run the following command :
# yum install traceroute -y
3. Verify the command install or not :
# which traceroute
4. How to use traceroute command :
a. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com :
# traceroute [options]
# traceroute www.google.com
traceroute to www.google.com (18.104.22.168), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
1 192.168.2.1 (192.168.2.1) 9.233 ms 9.020 ms 8.857 ms
2 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) 20.717 ms 20.529 ms 27.526 ms
3 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206) 57.368 ms 57.446 ms 57.187 ms
4 10.55.32.58 (10.55.32.58) 76.846 ms 10.55.32.56 (10.55.32.56) 66.418 ms 66.906 ms
5 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) 75.779 ms 65.556 ms 65.592 ms
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1 is the internet gateway on the network this traceroute was done (ADSL modem local IP) 2 is the ISP the origin computer is connected to.
My PPPoE modem WAN IP details :
b. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and do not resolve IP addresses to their domain names :
# traceroute www.google.com -n
c. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and set the number of seconds to wait for response to a probe to 0.1 seconds (Default is 5.0) :
# traceroute www.google.com -w 0.1
d. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and set the number of probes per each hop to 5 (Default is 3) :
# traceroute www.google.com -q 5
5. Display basic command line options help for more usage :
# traceroute --help
traceroute [ -46dFITnreAUV ] [ -f first_ttl ] [ -g gate,... ] [ -i device ] [ -m max_ttl ] [ -N squeries ] [ -p port ] [ -t tos ] [ -l flow_label ] [ -w waittime ] [ -q nqueries ] [ -s src_addr ] [ -z sendwait ] host [ packetlen ]
-4 Use IPv4
-6 Use IPv6
-d --debug Enable socket level debugging
-F --dont-fragment Do not fragment packets
-f first_ttl --first=first_ttl
Start from the first_ttl hop (instead from 1)
-g gate,... --gateway=gate,...
Route packets through the specified gateway
(maximum 8 for IPv4 and 127 for IPv6)
-I --icmp Use ICMP ECHO for tracerouting
-T --tcp Use TCP SYN for tracerouting
-i device --interface=device
Specify a network interface to operate with
-m max_ttl --max-hops=max_ttl
Set the max number of hops (max TTL to be
reached). Default is 30
-N squeries --sim-queries=squeries
Set the number of probes to be tried
simultaneously (default is 16)
-n Do not resolve IP addresses to their domain names
-p port --port=port Set the destination port to use. It is either
initial udp port value for "default" method
(incremented by each probe, default is 33434), or
initial seq for "icmp" (incremented as well,
default from 1), or some constant destination
port for other methods (with default of 80 for
"tcp", 53 for "udp", etc.)
-t tos --tos=tos Set the TOS (IPv4 type of service) or TC (IPv6
traffic class) value for outgoing packets
-l flow_label --flowlabel=flow_label
Use specified flow_label for IPv6 packets
-w waittime --wait=waittime
Set the number of seconds to wait for response to
a probe (default is 5.0). Non-integer (float
point) values allowed too
-q nqueries --queries=nqueries
Set the number of probes per each hop. Default is
-r Bypass the normal routing and send directly to a
host on an attached network
-s src_addr --source=src_addr
Use source src_addr for outgoing packets
-z sendwait --sendwait=sendwait
Minimal time interval between probes (default 0).
If the value is more than 10, then it specifies a
number in milliseconds, else it is a number of
seconds (float point values allowed too)
-e --extensions Show ICMP extensions (if present), including MPLS
-A --as-path-lookups Perform AS path lookups in routing registries and
print results directly after the corresponding
-M name --module=name Use specified module (either builtin or external)
for traceroute operations. Most methods have
their shortcuts (`-I' means `-M icmp' etc.)
-O OPTS,... --options=OPTS,...
Use module-specific option OPTS for the
traceroute module. Several OPTS allowed,
separated by comma. If OPTS is "help", print info
about available options
--sport=num Use source port num for outgoing packets. Implies
-U --udp Use UDP to particular port for tracerouting
(instead of increasing the port per each probe),
default port is 53
-UL Use UDPLITE for tracerouting (default dest port
-P prot --protocol=prot Use raw packet of protocol prot for tracerouting
--mtu Discover MTU along the path being traced. Implies
`-F -N 1'
--back Guess the number of hops in the backward path and
print if it differs
-V --version Print version info and exit
--help Read this help and exit
+ host The host to traceroute to
packetlen The full packet length (default is the length of an IP
header plus 40). Can be ignored or increased to a minimal