How to Install Varnish Cache With Apache On CentOS 6.5

Varnish is an open source web accelerator (also called a HTTP reverse proxy) designed for content-heavy dynamic web sites to speed up web server’s performance. Typical Web server will handles all the request and returning a response to the client. But with Varnish cache, it will serve the saved copy page instead of re-requesting the same revisited page from web server. This will reduced the server load and increased the response times. For those who plan to run a virtual private server (VPS) and also run a dedicated web server, hope that this article will help. This article will describe how to install and configure Varnish Cache with Apache on CentOS 6.5.

1. Setup varnish repo :

[root@centos6 ~]# wget http://repo.varnish-cache.org/redhat/varnish-3.0/el6/noarch/varnish-release/varnish-release-3.0-1.el6.noarch.rpm
[root@centos6 ~]# rpm --nosignature -i varnish-release-3.0-1.el6.noarch.rpm

2. Install Varnish and Apache :

[root@centos6 ~]# yum install varnish -y
[root@centos6 ~]# yum install httpd -y

3. Make both program start at boot :

[root@centos6 ~]# chkconfig --level 345 varnish on
[root@centos6 ~]# chkconfig --level 345 httpd on

4. Configure apache to listen to port 8080 :

[root@centos6 ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Modify below :

Listen 8080

5. Configuring Varnish Cache :

[root@centos6 ~]# vim /etc/sysconfig/varnish
..
..
# # Main configuration file. You probably want to change it :)
VARNISH_VCL_CONF=/etc/varnish/default.vcl
#
# # Default address and port to bind to
# # Blank address means all IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces, otherwise specify
# # a host name, an IPv4 dotted quad, or an IPv6 address in brackets.
# VARNISH_LISTEN_ADDRESS=
#VARNISH_LISTEN_PORT=6081
VARNISH_LISTEN_PORT=80
#
# # Telnet admin interface listen address and port
VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_ADDRESS=127.0.0.1
VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_PORT=6082
#
# # Shared secret file for admin interface
VARNISH_SECRET_FILE=/etc/varnish/secret
#
# # The minimum number of worker threads to start
VARNISH_MIN_THREADS=50
#
# # The Maximum number of worker threads to start
VARNISH_MAX_THREADS=1000
#
# # Idle timeout for worker threads
VARNISH_THREAD_TIMEOUT=120
#
# # Cache file location
VARNISH_STORAGE_FILE=/var/lib/varnish/varnish_storage.bin
#
# # Cache file size: in bytes, optionally using k / M / G / T suffix,
# # or in percentage of available disk space using the % suffix.
VARNISH_STORAGE_SIZE=1G
#
# # Backend storage specification
VARNISH_STORAGE="file,${VARNISH_STORAGE_FILE},${VARNISH_STORAGE_SIZE}"
#
# # Default TTL used when the backend does not specify one
VARNISH_TTL=120
#
# # DAEMON_OPTS is used by the init script.  If you add or remove options, make
# # sure you update this section, too.
DAEMON_OPTS="-a ${VARNISH_LISTEN_ADDRESS}:${VARNISH_LISTEN_PORT} \
             -f ${VARNISH_VCL_CONF} \
             -T ${VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_ADDRESS}:${VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_PORT} \
             -t ${VARNISH_TTL} \
             -w ${VARNISH_MIN_THREADS},${VARNISH_MAX_THREADS},${VARNISH_THREAD_TIMEOUT} \
             -u varnish -g varnish \
             -S ${VARNISH_SECRET_FILE} \
             -s ${VARNISH_STORAGE}"
#
..
..

Add the following in /etc/varnish/default.vcl :

[root@centos6 ~]# vim /etc/varnish/default.vcl
backend default {
  .host = "127.0.0.1";
  .port = "8080";
}

6. Start Varnish and Apache ”

[root@centos6 ~]# service varnish start
Starting Varnish Cache:                                    [  OK  ]
[root@centos6 ~]# service httpd start
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

7. verify varnish and Apache running on the correct port :

[root@centos6 ~]# netstat -plunt
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111                 0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1042/rpcbind
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      21729/varnishd
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1075/sshd
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:6082              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      21728/varnishd
tcp        0      0 :::111                      :::*                        LISTEN      1042/rpcbind
tcp        0      0 :::80                       :::*                        LISTEN      21729/varnishd
tcp        0      0 :::8080                     :::*                        LISTEN      1182/httpd
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1075/sshd
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111                 0.0.0.0:*                               1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:793                 0.0.0.0:*                               1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 :::111                      :::*                                    1042/rpcbind
udp        0      0 :::793                      :::*                                    1042/rpcbind

8. Verify the Varnish by running the following command.

[root@centos6 ~]# curl -I http://www.ehowstuff.local
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.3.3
X-Pingback: http://www.ehowstuff.local/xmlrpc.php
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 7990
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Date: Sun, 13 Apr 2014 15:41:41 GMT
X-Varnish: 1889373153
Age: 0
Via: 1.1 varnish
Connection: keep-alive

9. ApacheBench performance test without Varnish Cache

[root@centos6 ~]# ab -k -n 1000 -c 50 http://www.ehowstuff.local:8080/
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 < $Revision: 655654 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking www.ehowstuff.local (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Completed 300 requests
Completed 400 requests
Completed 500 requests
Completed 600 requests
Completed 700 requests
Completed 800 requests
Completed 900 requests
Completed 1000 requests
Finished 1000 requests


Server Software:        Apache/2.2.15
Server Hostname:        www.ehowstuff.local
Server Port:            8080

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        0 bytes

Concurrency Level:      50
Time taken for tests:   217.545 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        81
   (Connect: 0, Receive: 0, Length: 81, Exceptions: 0)
Write errors:           0
Non-2xx responses:      1000
Keep-Alive requests:    0
Total transferred:      318518 bytes
HTML transferred:       20331 bytes
Requests per second:    4.60 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       10877.237 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       217.545 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          1.43 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    3  12.1      0      65
Processing:   219 10822 17202.8   3275   61139
Waiting:      218 10802 17210.6   3228   61138
Total:        239 10825 17201.5   3275   61139

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%   3275
  66%   4513
  75%   5570
  80%  12099
  90%  40539
  95%  60069
  98%  60103
  99%  60200
 100%  61139 (longest request)

10. ApacheBench performance test with Varnish Cache

[root@centos6 ~]# ab -k -n 1000 -c 50 http://www.ehowstuff.local/
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 < $Revision: 655654 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking www.ehowstuff.local (be patient)
Completed 100 requests
Completed 200 requests
Completed 300 requests
Completed 400 requests
Completed 500 requests
Completed 600 requests
Completed 700 requests
Completed 800 requests
Completed 900 requests
Completed 1000 requests
Finished 1000 requests


Server Software:        Apache/2.2.15
Server Hostname:        www.ehowstuff.local
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        7990 bytes

Concurrency Level:      50
Time taken for tests:   0.227 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Keep-Alive requests:    1000
Total transferred:      8565396 bytes
HTML transferred:       8221710 bytes
Requests per second:    4410.08 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       11.338 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.227 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          36888.79 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    1   3.2      0      19
Processing:     7   10   1.7     10      18
Waiting:        1    4   2.3      4      15
Total:          7   11   4.1     10      31

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     10
  66%     10
  75%     11
  80%     11
  90%     12
  95%     13
  98%     27
  99%     31
 100%     31 (longest request)

11. Result on Steps (9) and (10) shows that Apache with Varnish serve faster response than running Apache standalone.

 

Apache Reverse Proxy Configuration for Linux

Reverse Proxy is a gateway and it’s appears to the client like an ordinary web server. In this article, i will show quick steps to setup and configure Apache Reverse Proxy server. We need to add reverse proxy configuration into configuration to tell apache where it should be redirecting or caching information for clients that request for information. In this case, the following servers will involve in the setup.

(Server1) http://www.ehowstuff.local –> 192.168.2.54
(Server2) http://web.ehowstuff.local –> 192.168.2.55

When the client browsing /web on Server1, the traffic will redirecting to Server2.

Apache Reverse Proxy Configuration for Linux CentOS 6/ RHEL 6/ Oracle Linux 6

1. To use the Apache proxy directives, the following modules should be loaded :

LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/mod_proxy_http.so

2. Configure /web on Apache web server on Server1 :

# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/reverse_proxy.conf

Add this lines :

<IfModule mod_proxy.c>
 ProxyRequests Off
 <Proxy *>
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
 </Proxy>

 ProxyPass /web http://web.ehowstuff.local
 ProxyPassReverse /web http://web.ehowstuff.local
</IfModule>

3. Restart or reload Apache to take effect :

# service httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

4. Browse the URL http://www.ehowstuff.local/web as below :

Apache Reverse Proxy

 

Nginx Reverse Proxy Setup for Linux Server

Nginx Reverse ProxyNginx also pronounced “Engine-X” is a free, open-source HTTP Web server and one of the best alternative to Apache http server. It is a high-performance edge web server with the lowest memory footprint and the key features to build modern and efficient web infrastructure. Nginx also provides a combination of Nginx web servers, Nginx reverse proxy and Nginx load balancing solution to the websites that running on high traffic and just wants to be consistently efficient. Nginx has the lowest memory footprint possible and optimizes CPU usage while delivering maximum performance even on a very cheap server hardware. More importantly, Nginx is able to continuously take more connections while maintaining low memory usage.

What is Nginx Reverse Proxy ?

When Nginx reverse proxy received request, it sends a request to the specified proxied server. In this case the specified proxied server is Apache web server. When Nginx reverse proxy fetches the response from Apache web server, It will sends it back to the client. In other words, Nginx reverse proxy serve as front-end server for Apache web service.

How to Setup Nginx Reverse Proxy for Linux

This article will show you how to install and configure Nginx reverse proxy for Apache web server. It was assumed that Apache web server has been running at 192.168.1.55 and nginx will be install at another server with Ip address, 192.168.1.54. This has been tested and working fine at CentOS 6 / CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Oracle Linux 7.

Nginx Reverse Proxy Server : 192.168.1.54
Apache Web server : 192.168.1.55

1. Prepared yum repository for nginx :

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

2. Perform yum install for nginx :

# yum install nginx -y

3. Backup original nginx config file :

# cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.bak

4. Modify default nginx config file :

# vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user  nginx;
worker_processes  1;

error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;


events {

    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    charset   utf-8;
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    server_tokens       off;
    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         off;

    server {
          listen 80;
          server_name  _;
          root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
          index  index.html index.htm;     }

    include  conf.d/*.conf;
}

5. Add the host configuration file under /etc/nginx/conf.d/. Nginx config file will load all *.conf files under conf.d folder :

As example, the website domain is ehowstuff.local. So virtual server ehowstuff.local will be created and named as ehowstuff.local.conf :

# vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/ehowstuff.local.conf
server {
      listen 80;
      server_name  ehowstuff.local www.ehowstuff.local;

 access_log  off;
 error_log off;

location / {
  proxy_pass              http://192.168.1.55:80/;
  proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP       $remote_addr;
  proxy_set_header        Host  $host;
  proxy_redirect          off;
  proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
  proxy_connect_timeout   90;
  proxy_send_timeout      90;
  proxy_read_timeout      90;
  client_max_body_size    10m;
  client_body_buffer_size 128k;
  proxy_buffer_size       4k;
  proxy_buffers           4 32k;
  proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
}
}

On above configuration file, all the traffic to ehowstuff.local port 80 will be redirected to the Apache web server that hosted at 192.168.1.55. Nginx reverse proxy serve as front-end server for Apache web service.

6. Verify the configuration file :

# /usr/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

7. Start nginx server :

# service nginx start

8. Configure nginx start at boot :

# chkconfig nginx on