How to Install and Configure NTP Server on Ubuntu 14.04

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize between computer systems over the network. Time synchronization is very crucial to determine when events happened to computers system or server systems. NTP will be very useful when we want to implement replication between servers. NTP uses 123/UDP protocol. Please make sure UDP port from each client to NTP has been opened. This article will describe how to install and configure NTP server on Ubuntu 14.04 server.

1. Install ntp service :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get install ntp -y

2. Configure NTP service :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/ntp.conf

For Malaysia, add the following NTP servers :

server 0.asia.pool.ntp.org
server 1.asia.pool.ntp.org
server 2.asia.pool.ntp.org
server 3.asia.pool.ntp.org

3. Once configuration file updated, restart ntp to take affect :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service ntp restart
 * Stopping NTP server ntpd                                                                  [ OK ]
 * Starting NTP server ntpd                                                                  [ OK ]

4. Verify that NTP service is synchronizing to remote NTP servers :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo ntpq -p

Example :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo ntpq -p
     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter
==============================================================================
 balthasar.gimas 65.32.162.194    3 u    1   64    1  146.094  -10.741   0.000
 chobi.paina.jp  .INIT.          16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000
 194.27.44.55    .INIT.          16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000
 202-65-114-202. .INIT.          16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000
 europium.canoni .INIT.          16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000   0.000

5. Configure NTP for Client :
ubuntu14-ntp1

How to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu Server 14.04

How to Setup Squid Proxy in UbuntuSquid is a proxy server that provide cache services to the clients. It redirects client requests from web browsers to the proxy server and delivers the client’s requests and keeps a copy of them in the proxy hard disk cache. This will speeding up internet access especially for frequently-used files and reduces internet bandwidth. Squid program does not requires intensive CPU usage. To increase efficiency, i would recommend to buy faster disks or add more memory into the squid proxy server. This post describes basic steps on how to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu Server 14.04.

How to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu

 

 

How to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu

1. Install Squid 3 :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get install squid3 -y

2. Configure common setting :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/squid3/squid.conf

Around line 919, define allowed LAN segment :

..
acl lan_ehowstuff src 192.168.0.0/24
..

Around line 1058, allow defined LAN :

..
http_access allow lan_ehowstuff
..

Listen on port 3128 :

# Squid normally listens to port 3128
http_port 3128

Save the configuration

3. Configure Squid Proxy Authentication using digest authentication scheme :

a. Install the program ‘htdigest’ :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get install apache2-utils -y

b. Setting up user :

sudo htdigest -c /etc/squid3/passwords realm_name user_name

Example :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo htdigest -c /etc/squid3/passwords proxy proxyuser1
Adding password for proxyuser1 in realm proxy.
New password:
Re-type new password:

c. At line 335-337, add digest squid authentication configuration. Please note that the file digest_pw_auth has been renamed to digest_file_auth in ubuntu 14.04. By default, the digest authentication scheme is not used unless the program is specified.

auth_param digest program /usr/lib/squid3/digest_file_auth -c /etc/squid3/passwords
auth_param digest realm proxy
acl authenticated_ehowstuff proxy_auth REQUIRED
http_access allow authenticated_ehowstuff

4. Restart the Squid to take affect the new configuration :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo initctl restart squid3
squid3 start/running, process 2185

or

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service squid3 restart

5. Verify port 3128 are listening :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo netstat -plunt | grep 3128
tcp6       0      0 :::3128                 :::*                    LISTEN      2185/squid3

6. Configure at client browser :
How to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu

7. Everytime you open the browser, proxy authentication box will be prompted :
How to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu

8. Monitor the access log from proxy server. You can see proxyuser1 as authenticated user :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo tail -f /var/log/squid3/access.log
RECT/173.194.126.55 text/html
1409354804.372   1073 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 776 GET http://xml.alexa.com/data? proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/23.21.109.107 text/xml
1409354842.754    963 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 2285 POST http://sd.symcd.com/ proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/23.51.43.27 application/ocsp-response
1409354843.234   1489 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 915 POST http://ocsp.digicert.com/ proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/117.18.237.29 application/ocsp-response
1409354843.454   1549 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 2285 POST http://sd.symcd.com/ proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/23.51.43.27 application/ocsp-response
1409354848.074   3249 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS_ABORTED/000 0 POST http://ocsp.thawte.com/ proxyuser1 HIER_NONE/- -
1409354848.877   3248 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS_ABORTED/000 0 POST http://ocsp.thawte.com/ proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/199.7.71.72 -
1409354853.997   1120 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 794 GET http://hsrd.yahoo.com/_ylt=A86.IsJVDAFUTGsAVsJUqcB_;_ylu=X3oDMTQ0aHJqM2NuBGNjb2RlA2hvbWVydW4yBGNwb3MDMARnAzAyMTMtMGExNGQ5Zjc1NWZkZGUyYTY5M2E0ZmViNzE0MDUwOTctMDAxNARpbnRsA215BHBrZ3QDNARwb3MDMgRzZWMDdGQtb2ZsLWIEc2xrA3RpdGxlBHRlc3QDNjg0BHdvZQM5MTc5OTMzMg--/RV=1/RE=1410564437/RH=aHNyZC55YWhvby5jb20-/RO=2/RU=aHR0cHM6Ly9teS5zcG9ydHMueWFob28uY29tL2ZhbnRhc3kvc29jY2VyL3ByZW1pZXItbGVhZ3Vl/RS=%5EADA7H0JFo.Ud2RQRqK4zKbm5QoTGVg- proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/206.190.39.139 text/html
1409354854.482    280 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 446 GET http://toolbarqueries.google.com/tbr? proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/58.27.61.123 text/html
1409354854.750    549 192.168.0.1 TCP_MISS/200 4214 GET http://xml.alexa.com/data? proxyuser1 HIER_DIRECT/23.21.109.107 text/xml

I hope that above guidelines on how to Setup Squid Proxy in Ubuntu Server will help system administrator to start installing their own proxy server.

How to Install Nginx With PHP5 (and PHP-FPM) and MySQL (LEMP) On Ubuntu 14.04

NGINX, pronounced “Engine X” is an alternate web server for Apache. NGINX is an open source web server and a reverse proxy server for HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols. If you plan to run a very busy and high concurrency websites but with low memory usage, i would suggest you to setup NGINX as a web server on your Virtual Private Server (VPS) or dedicated server.

1. Install nginx, PHP and MySQL :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get install nginx php5 php5-fpm php5-mysql php5-curl php5-gd php5-intl php-pear php5-imagick php5-imap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-ming php5-ps php5-pspell php5-recode php5-snmp php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl mysql-server-5.6 -y

During this installation, you will require to set MySQL’s root password :
1

2

2. Open /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini and set cgi.fix_pathinfo=0:

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini
; http://php.net/cgi.fix-pathinfo
cgi.fix_pathinfo=0

; FastCGI under IIS (on WINNT based OS) supports the ability to impersonate
; securi

3. Set date.timezone in /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vi /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini
[Date]
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
; http://php.net/date.timezone
date.timezone = "Asia/Kuala_Lumpur"

; http://php.net/date.default-latitude
;date.default_latitude = 31.7667

4. By default PHP-FPM is listening on the socket /var/run/php5-fpm.sock. We have an option to make PHP-FPM use a TCP connection. Open and add “listen = 127.0.0.1:9000” and comment out “listen = /var/run/php5-fpm.sock”

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vim /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

Change as below :

..
..
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
;listen = /var/run/php5-fpm.sock
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
..
..

5. Restart PHP-FPM :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service php5-fpm restart
stop: Unknown instance:
php5-fpm start/running, process 7314

6. Backup NGINX config file :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo cp -p /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.bak

7. Check Number CPU on your VPS server. This will will require to adjust NGINX Worker Processes & Connections. NGINX workers is equal to the number of processors :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ lscpu | grep '^CPU(s)'
CPU(s):                1

8. Configure worker_processes on nginx.conf as below :

..
..
worker_processes 1;
..
..

Full nginx configuration should like below :

user www-data;
worker_processes 1;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

events {
        worker_connections 768;
        # multi_accept on;
}

http {

        ##
        # Basic Settings
        ##

        sendfile on;
        tcp_nopush on;
        tcp_nodelay on;
        keepalive_timeout 65;
        types_hash_max_size 2048;
        # server_tokens off;

        # server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
        # server_name_in_redirect off;

        include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
        default_type application/octet-stream;

        ##
        # Logging Settings
        ##

        access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;

        ##
        # Gzip Settings
        ##

        gzip on;
        gzip_disable "msie6";

        # gzip_vary on;
        # gzip_proxied any;
        # gzip_comp_level 6;
        # gzip_buffers 16 8k;
        # gzip_http_version 1.1;
        # gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

        ##
        # nginx-naxsi config
        ##
        # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-naxsi
        ##

        #include /etc/nginx/naxsi_core.rules;

        ##
        # nginx-passenger config
        ##
        # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-passenger
        ##

        #passenger_root /usr;
        #passenger_ruby /usr/bin/ruby;

        ##
        # Virtual Host Configs
        ##

        include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
        include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}


#mail {
#       # See sample authentication script at:
#       # http://wiki.nginx.org/ImapAuthenticateWithApachePhpScript
#
#       # auth_http localhost/auth.php;
#       # pop3_capabilities "TOP" "USER";
#       # imap_capabilities "IMAP4rev1" "UIDPLUS";
#
#       server {
#               listen     localhost:110;
#               protocol   pop3;
#               proxy      on;
#       }
#
#       server {
#               listen     localhost:143;
#               protocol   imap;
#               proxy      on;
#       }
#}

9. Under your home directory, create public_html and change owner to www-data. This will be your document root directory :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo mkdir public_html/
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data public_html/

10. Create index.php under document root directory :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vim public_html/index.php

Insert the following :

<?php
phpinfo();
?>

11. Now it’s turn to setup your NGINX. Please modify the default site.

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

Kindly update the root directory and comment out the required lines as below :

# You may add here your
# server {
#	...
# }
# statements for each of your virtual hosts to this file

##
# You should look at the following URL's in order to grasp a solid understanding
# of Nginx configuration files in order to fully unleash the power of Nginx.
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Pitfalls
# http://wiki.nginx.org/QuickStart
# http://wiki.nginx.org/Configuration
#
# Generally, you will want to move this file somewhere, and start with a clean
# file but keep this around for reference. Or just disable in sites-enabled.
#
# Please see /usr/share/doc/nginx-doc/examples/ for more detailed examples.
##

server {
	listen 80 default_server;
	listen [::]:80 default_server ipv6only=on;

	root /home/ehowstuff/public_html;
	index index.html index.htm index.php;

	# Make site accessible from http://localhost/
	server_name localhost;

	location / {
		# First attempt to serve request as file, then
		# as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
		try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
		# Uncomment to enable naxsi on this location
		# include /etc/nginx/naxsi.rules
	}

	# Only for nginx-naxsi used with nginx-naxsi-ui : process denied requests
	#location /RequestDenied {
	#	proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080;    
	#}

        error_page 404 /404.html;

	# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
	#
	error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
	location = /50x.html {
		root /usr/share/nginx/html;
	}

	# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
	#
	location ~ \.php$ {
		fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
	#	# NOTE: You should have "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0;" in php.ini
	#
	#	# With php5-cgi alone:
		fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
	#	# With php5-fpm:
	#	fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
		fastcgi_index index.php;
		include fastcgi_params;
	}

	# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
	# concurs with nginx's one
	#
	location ~ /\.ht {
		deny all;
	}
}


# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
#	listen 8000;
#	listen somename:8080;
#	server_name somename alias another.alias;
#	root html;
#	index index.html index.htm;
#
#	location / {
#		try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
#	}
#}


# HTTPS server
#
#server {
#	listen 443;
#	server_name localhost;
#
#	root html;
#	index index.html index.htm;
#
#	ssl on;
#	ssl_certificate cert.pem;
#	ssl_certificate_key cert.key;
#
#	ssl_session_timeout 5m;
#
#	ssl_protocols SSLv3 TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
#	ssl_ciphers "HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5 or HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5:!3DES";
#	ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
#
#	location / {
#		try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
#	}
#}

12. Restart your nginx and php5-fpm service to take effect all changes :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service nginx restart
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service php5-fpm restart

13. Test your NGINX site by visit http://IP-Adress :
ubuntu-lemp

Done!!!

How to Disable and Remove AppArmor on Ubuntu 14.04

remove AppArmor on UbuntuAppArmor is a Mandatory Access Control (MAC) and security extension that provides a variety of security policies for Linux kernel. It is an alternative application to SELinux and included with Ubuntu. Most of the time you don’t need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems because some service wasn’t working as expected. Below steps will show you how to disable and remove AppArmor on Ubuntu 14.04.

Steps to Disable and Remove AppArmor on Ubuntu

1. How to check AppArmor status :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apparmor_status
apparmor module is loaded.
4 profiles are loaded.
4 profiles are in enforce mode.
   /sbin/dhclient
   /usr/lib/NetworkManager/nm-dhcp-client.action
   /usr/lib/connman/scripts/dhclient-script
   /usr/sbin/tcpdump
0 profiles are in complain mode.
1 processes have profiles defined.
1 processes are in enforce mode.
   /sbin/dhclient (669)
0 processes are in complain mode.
0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.

2. Disable AppArmor and unload the kernel module by entering the following:

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/apparmor stop
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

or

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo service apparmor stop
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo update-rc.d -f apparmor remove

3. Remove AppArmor software :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils -y

Example :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils -y
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  apparmor apparmor-utils
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 2 to remove and 119 not upgraded.
After this operation, 1,467 kB disk space will be freed.
(Reading database ... 93228 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing apparmor-utils (2.8.95~2430-0ubuntu5) ...
Removing apparmor (2.8.95~2430-0ubuntu5) ...
 * Clearing AppArmor profiles cache                                                          [ OK ]
All profile caches have been cleared, but no profiles have been unloaded.
Unloading profiles will leave already running processes permanently
unconfined, which can lead to unexpected situations.

To set a process to complain mode, use the command line tool
'aa-complain'. To really tear down all profiles, run the init script
with the 'teardown' option."
Processing triggers for man-db (2.6.7.1-1) ...

Note : this steps works on ubuntu 14.04 minimal installation without GUI.

How to Allow root to use SSH on Ubuntu 14.04

Ubuntu is Debian-based distributions that don’t allow logins by the root user by default, either locally or remotely via SSH. Previous post, i have discussed how to enable root login on Ubuntu 14.04 by issue the following command :

sudo passwd root

Above command not allow the root user to remotely use SSH connection by default. There are a few more steps need to perform in order to allow root to use SSH on Ubuntu 14.04. Kindly follow below steps :

1. Login using normal user and su to root. Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ su - root
Password:
root@ubuntu14:~# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Comment out #PermitRootLogin without-password, add PermitRootLogin yes into the line :

# Authentication:
LoginGraceTime 120
#PermitRootLogin without-password
PermitRootLogin yes
StrictModes yes

3. Restart ssh service to take affect the changes :

root@ubuntu14:~# service sshd restart
ssh stop/waiting
ssh start/running, process 1499
root@ubuntu14:~#

4. That’s all.

How to Install VMware Tools on Ubuntu 14.04

VMware Tools is a group of utilities and drivers that enhances the performance of the virtual machine’s guest operating system and improves interaction between the guest and the host when running on a VMware Esx/Esxi, VMware Player, VMware Server or VMware Workstation. This post will show you how to install VMware Tools on Ubuntu 14.04. There are multiple way to install VMware Tools into an Ubuntu VM. This post will describe how you can install VMware Tools from vSphere client installer.

1. Install required packages:

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo-get install build-essential linux-header-$(uname -r)

2. Login to vCenter using vsphere client, right clicking on the Ubuntu 14.04 VM, selecting “Guest”, and then choosing “Install VMware Tools”.

3. Mount the VMware Tools CD image to /media/cdrom

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo mount /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom
mount: block device /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only

4. Copy the compressed VMware Tools installer files to /tmp in the local directory :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cd /media/cdrom
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/media/cdrom$ ls
manifest.txt  VMwareTools-8.3.7-341836.tar.gz
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/media/cdrom$ cp VMwareTools-8.3.7-341836.tar.gz /tmp

5. Unmount the VMware Tools CD image :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/media/cdrom$ cd
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo umount /media/cdrom

6. Extract the compressed VMware Tools installer :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cd /tmp
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/tmp$ tar xzvf VMwareTools-8.3.7-341836.tar.gz

7. Change directories into the VMware Tools distribution by running the command:

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cd /tmp/vmware-tools-distrib/
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/tmp/vmware-tools-distrib$

8. Install VMware Tools by running the command:

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:/tmp/vmware-tools-distrib$ sudo ./vmware-install.pl -d
Creating a new VMware Tools installer database using the tar4 format.

Installing VMware Tools.

In which directory do you want to install the binary files?
[/usr/bin]

What is the directory that contains the init directories (rc0.d/ to rc6.d/)?
[/etc]

What is the directory that contains the init scripts?
[/etc/init.d]

In which directory do you want to install the daemon files?
[/usr/sbin]

In which directory do you want to install the library files?
[/usr/lib/vmware-tools]

The path "/usr/lib/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program is
going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you want?
[yes]

In which directory do you want to install the documentation files?
[/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools]

The path "/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program
is going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you
want? [yes]

The installation of VMware Tools 8.3.7 build-341836 for Linux completed
successfully. You can decide to remove this software from your system at any
time by invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-uninstall-tools.pl".

Before running VMware Tools for the first time, you need to configure it by
invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-config-tools.pl". Do you want
this program to invoke the command for you now? [yes]

Initializing...

WARNING: A module identified as vsock has been found at
/lib/modules/3.13.0-24-generic/kernel/net/vmw_vsock/vsock.ko and at
/lib/modules/3.13.0-24-generic/kernel/net/vmw_vsock/vmw_vsock_vmci_transport.ko.
Leaving both modules in there could potentially cause a race condition when a
device is added.  We reccomend you remove one of them, run 'depmod -a' and then
re-run this configurator.


Stopping VMware Tools services in the virtual machine:
   Guest operating system daemon:                                      done
   Virtual Printing daemon:                                            done
   Unmounting HGFS shares:                                             done
   Guest filesystem driver:                                            done


update-rc.d: warning:  start runlevel arguments (S) do not match vmware-tools Default-Start values (2 3 5)
 Adding system startup for /etc/init.d/vmware-tools ...
   /etc/rc0.d/S36vmware-tools -> ../init.d/vmware-tools
   /etc/rc6.d/S36vmware-tools -> ../init.d/vmware-tools
   /etc/rcS.d/S38vmware-tools -> ../init.d/vmware-tools
The module vmmemctl has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.  Use the flag
--clobber-kernel-modules=vmmemctl to override.


WARNING: This program cannot compile any modules for the following reason(s)...

- This program could not find a valid path to the kernel headers of the running
kernel.  Please ensure that the header files for the running kernel are
installed on this sytem.

[ Press Enter key to continue ]


The filesystem driver (vmhgfs module) is used only for the shared folder
feature. The rest of the software provided by VMware Tools is designed to work
independently of this feature.

If you wish to have the shared folders feature, you can install the driver by
running vmware-config-tools.pl again after making sure that gcc, binutils, make
and the kernel sources for your running kernel are installed on your machine.
These packages are available on your distribution's installation CD.
[ Press Enter key to continue ]


The fast network device driver (vmxnet module) is used only for our fast
networking interface. The rest of the software provided by VMware Tools is
designed to work independently of this feature.
If you wish to have the fast network driver enabled, you can install the driver
by running vmware-config-tools.pl again after making sure that gcc, binutils,
make and the kernel sources for your running kernel are installed on your
machine. These packages are available on your distribution's installation CD.
[ Press Enter key to continue ]


The vmblock module enables dragging or copying files from within a host and
dropping or pasting them onto your guest (host to guest drag and drop and file
copy/paste).  The rest of the software provided by VMware Tools is designed to
work independently of this feature (including guest to host drag and drop and
file copy/paste).

If you would like the host to guest drag and drop and file copy/paste features,
you can install the driver by running vmware-config-tools.pl again after making
sure that gcc, binutils, make and the kernel sources for your running kernel
are installed on your machine. These packages are available on your
distribution's installation CD.
[ Press Enter key to continue ]

The module vmci has already been installed on this system by another installer
or package and will not be modified by this installer.  Use the flag
--clobber-kernel-modules=vmci to override.

The module vsock has already been installed on this system by another installer
or package and will not be modified by this installer.  Use the flag
--clobber-kernel-modules=vsock to override.

The module vmxnet3 has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.  Use the flag
--clobber-kernel-modules=vmxnet3 to override.

The module pvscsi has already been installed on this system by another
installer or package and will not be modified by this installer.  Use the flag
--clobber-kernel-modules=pvscsi to override.

No X install found.

Creating a new initrd boot image for the kernel.
update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-3.13.0-24-generic
Starting VMware Tools services in the virtual machine:
   Switching to guest configuration:                                   done
   Guest operating system daemon:                                      done
   Virtual Printing daemon:                                            done

The configuration of VMware Tools 8.3.7 build-341836 for Linux for this running
kernel completed successfully.

You must restart your X session before any mouse or graphics changes take
effect.

You can now run VMware Tools by invoking the following command:
"/usr/bin/vmware-toolbox" during an X server session.

To enable advanced X features (e.g., guest resolution fit, drag and drop, and
file and text copy/paste), you will need to do one (or more) of the following:
1. Manually start /usr/bin/vmware-user
2. Log out and log back into your desktop session; and,
3. Restart your X session.

Enjoy,

--the VMware team

Note: The -d switch assumes that you want to accept the defaults. If you don’t use -d switch, kindly choose the default for all questions.

9. Once installed, reboot the virtual machine :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo reboot

Three Command to Check your Ubuntu Version

Checking what version of Ubuntu you are running is very easy. From my own experience, there are multiple ways to check the Ubuntu version. You can either check from graphical interface version, or from command line in the local terminal session or via SSH. The following result has been tested from the command line that was run from the command remotely over SSH.

1. Check ubuntu version using “cat /etc/issue” command :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cat /etc/issue
Ubuntu 14.04 LTS \n \l

2. Check Ubuntu version using “cat /etc/lsb-release” command :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cat /etc/lsb-release
DISTRIB_ID=Ubuntu
DISTRIB_RELEASE=14.04
DISTRIB_CODENAME=trusty
DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Ubuntu 14.04 LTS"

3. Check Ubuntu version using “lsb_release -a” command :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
Release:        14.04
Codename:       trusty

or you can have more option to filter out the result :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ lsb_release -d
Description:    Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ lsb_release -c
Codename:       trusty
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ lsb_release -r
Release:        14.04

Additionaly, you can check all the info regarding kernel version :

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ uname -a
Linux ubuntu14 3.13.0-24-generic #46-Ubuntu SMP Thu Apr 10 19:11:08 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

or

ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ cat /proc/version
Linux version 3.13.0-24-generic (buildd@panlong) (gcc version 4.8.2 (Ubuntu 4.8.2-19ubuntu1) ) #46-Ubuntu SMP Thu Apr 10 19:11:08 UTC 2014

How to Enable Root Login on Ubuntu 14.04

By default, the Root account password is locked in Ubuntu and you will not able to login as Root directly or use the su command to become the Root user. The root user doesn’t have a password set. The steps to enable the root account is very simple. But it is not recommended because it may cause very serious trouble to your system because login as Root means you can do anything.

Issue this command to enable root login on Ubuntu 14.04. You will prompted for a new Unix password. Second password for confirmation :

sudo passwd root

Example :

login as: ehowstuff
ehowstuff@192.168.0.114's password:
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.13.0-24-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/

  System information as of Sun Apr 27 23:49:57 MYT 2014

  System load:  0.15              Processes:           68
  Usage of /:   3.8% of 31.37GB   Users logged in:     0
  Memory usage: 3%                IP address for eth0: 192.168.0.114
  Swap usage:   0%

  Graph this data and manage this system at:
    https://landscape.canonical.com/

4 packages can be updated.
1 update is a security update.

Last login: Sun Apr 27 23:49:57 2014
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$ sudo passwd root
[sudo] password for ehowstuff:
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
ehowstuff@ubuntu14:~$

Download Ubuntu 14.04 LTS for Server and Desktop

Ubuntu is completely free to download, use and share. Ubuntu 14.04 LTS has been released on 17 April, 2014. Ubuntu is distributed on two types of images, desktop image and server image. The desktop image allows you to try Ubuntu on graphical user interface which most end users want to use. But in server image, graphical user interface will not install.

Release Notes :
https://wiki.ubuntu.com/TrustyTahr/ReleaseNotes

Full Download Link :
http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/

There are four images available which two for server and two for desktop.

1. Server install image for 64-bit PC (AMD64)
http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/ubuntu-14.04-server-amd64.iso

2. Server install image for PC (Intel x86)
http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/ubuntu-14.04-server-i386.iso

3. Desktop image for 64-bit PC (AMD64)
http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/ubuntu-14.04-desktop-amd64.iso

4. Desktop image for PC (Intel x86)
http://releases.ubuntu.com/14.04/ubuntu-14.04-desktop-i386.iso