MySQL is the world’s most popular open source database and its the world’s second most widely used open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). MySQL default installation is not securely configured. For the sake of security, we need to run mysql_secure_installation wizard manually in order to perform basic MYSQL hardening on Virtual private server (VPS). The following steps has been tested on MySQL Community Server 5.5.39 that was running on CentOS 6.5 and CentOS 6.6.
1. Run mysql_secure_installation wizard :
[root@vps ]# mysql_secure_installation NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank, so you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL root user without the proper authorisation. Set root password? [Y/n] y New password: Re-enter new password: Password updated successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y ... Success! By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MySQL!
2. Set “bind-address” parameter within the “[mysqld]” section in /etc/my.conf. Configure this to your VPS local loopback network device, which is “127.0.0.1”. please make sure that you only perform this step if you confirm no other server will need to access the database on your VPS.
[root@vps ~]# vi /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld] .. bind-address = 127.0.0.1 ..
3. Restart your mysqld server :
[root@vps ~]# service mysqld restart
4. Verify the mysqld port listen to 127.0.0.1 only :
[root@vps ~]# netstat -plunt | grep 3306 tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:3306 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 8224/mysqld