EPEL stand for Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux. EPEL repository is a Fedora Special Interest Group that creates, maintains, and manages a high quality set of additional packages for Enterprise Linux, including, but not limited to, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), CentOS and Scientific Linux (SL), Oracle Enterprise Linux(OEL). Remi repository is a yum repository maintained by a French dude – Remi Collet. This post describe the basic steps to prepare and install the additional CentOS packages with EPEL and Remi Repository into CentOS 6.
WordPress is free web blogging software and open source content management system (CMS) which based on PHP and MySQL platform. You can run and install WorPress on shared Web hosting service, on virtual private server (VPS) or if you need high performance WordPress blog which can serve many concurrent users at a time, you can choose dedicated server for it. This post covers the steps how to install WordPress on linux CentOS 6.4. It was assumed that this CentOS 6.4 already installed with PHP, apache and MySQL server.
1. Login as a root, download latest wordpress file :
6. Create user “newwordpressuser” with password “newwordpresspassword” :
mysql> CREATE USER 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'newwordpresspassword';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.07 sec)
7. Grant all privileges to “newwordpress” to user “newwordpressuser” from localhost access :
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON newwordpress.* to newwordpressuser@localhost;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
8. Verify the granted access for user “newwordpressuser” :
mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost';
| Grants for newwordpressuser@localhost |
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*2E824B82B9B162C4283AA039118AD4C5248380DA' |
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `newwordpress`.* TO 'newwordpressuser'@'localhost' |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
9. Display the created database :
mysql> show databases;
| Database |
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| newwordpress |
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
10. Copy and rename wp-config-sample.php to wp-config.php:
[root@centos64 ~]# vi /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-config.php
12. Change below database details such as database’ name, database’ username, database’ password nand database’ hostname.
// ** MySQL settings - You can get this info from your web host ** //
/** The name of the database for WordPress */
/** MySQL database username */
/** MySQL database password */
/** MySQL hostname */
13. To install, navigate the browser to http://servername/wordpress/. http://192.168.2.64/wordpress/
14. To login, navigate the browser to http://servername/wordpress/wp-login.php :
Zimbra LDAP service running on OpenLDAP software. It is the directory service and identified when the Zimbra software is installed together with it’s own Zimbra schema. Zimbra LDAP service is used in Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) to store data for Zimbra Global configuration, user and authentication information, server, domain and class of service (COS) details. The following task will be very useful to zimbra system administrator in order to Verify the LDAP or slapd process in Zimbra. The command has been tested on ZCS 8.0.4 open-source version running on CentOS 6.4. I have documented these post as my own tutorial and also for my blog visitors reference.
1. How to verify ldap status in zimbra. Run as the zimbra user :
[zimbra@centos64 ~]$ ldap status
slapd running pid: 1351
2. How to verify that the slapd process is running or not :
Zimbra zmmailbox command is used for mailbox management such as admin-related commands, account-related commands, appoint-related commands, folder-related commands, message-related commands, tag-related commands and etc. It is the powerful command utility for zimbra administrator to perform daily account management or to perform zimbra account related issues. This post will brief you on how you can manage, get, create, delete and Empty the Folder in zimbra mailbox using zmmailbox command line interface (CLI). All the command has been tested in Zimbra Collaboration Suite 8.0.4 installed on CentOS 6.4.
Using zmmailbox command, enter to firstname.lastname@example.org mailbox :
Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) is one of the popular open source email. It was created by Zimbra, Inc. Zimbra has released new version of ZCS 8.0.4. This new version consist of many new features and enhancements. This post describes the steps to upgrade existing ZCS 8.0.3 to ZCS 8.0.4 on CentOS 6.4 64 bit. I would recommend to to review the known issues that had been fixed before installing or upgrading.
Major Issues Fixed for 8.0.4
-Private events within shared calendars no longer show the organizer’s name. -Fixed the issue which caused stat-charts to not display properly. -When running zmproxypurge, all aliases are purged. -Support for Real-time Blackhole List (RBL) blocking using zimbraMtaRestrictionRBLs and attributes reject_rhsbl_client, reject_rhsbl_reverse_client, and reject_rhsbl_sender. -Fixed the issue which caused an error when using spell check if language preference is set to Japanese. -Fixed the issue which caused an error in Javac compilation for Java Server Pages (JSP). -Removed insecure SSL ciphers from default proxy configuration. Existing sites are recommended to review their enabled ciphers and set zimbraReverseProxySSLCiphers to RC4:HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5:!kEDH:!AD:!SSLv2 for maximum security. Note that some clients might need to be reconfigured if they were previously using a cipher which is now disabled. -Fixed the issue which caused a Language field to display as blank when selecting login options and only one language is available. The option now displays as text and not as a dropdown menu. -zmblobchk no longer reports missing blobs for appointments with multiple revisions. Changes work even if multiple revisions point to the same file blob. -Fixed the issue which caused autodiscovery to fail on iOS devices, due to iOS sending the request to /Autodiscover/ Autodiscover.xml rather than /autodiscover/ autodiscover.xml. -The administration console now has the option to automatically log users out when their Zimbra Web Client tab/window/browser is closed. This forces the user to log in to their next session. -New attribute zimbraMtaFallbackRelayHost is located in the administration console at Configure > Global Settings > MTA > Network and is shown as Relay MTA for external delivery. -The Distribution Lists folder is displayed in the list of address book folders only if the attribute is set to true. The default is True, but customers such as service providers might select to set this to False to turn this feature off. -The administration console supports DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) as a service. Any changes to the services on the Servers page in the administration console requires a restart of the server. -Resolved issue which caused deadlocks in SyncState.java.
[root@centos64 zcs-8.0.4_GA_5737.RHEL6_64.20130524120036]# ./install.sh --platform-override
Operations logged to /tmp/install.log.61733
Checking for existing installation...
ZCS upgrade from 8.0.3 to 8.0.4 will be performed.
Saving existing configuration file to /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig
PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE SOFTWARE.
ZIMBRA, INC. ("ZIMBRA") WILL ONLY LICENSE THIS SOFTWARE TO YOU IF YOU
FIRST ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. BY DOWNLOADING OR INSTALLING
THE SOFTWARE, OR USING THE PRODUCT, YOU ARE CONSENTING TO BE BOUND BY
THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO ALL OF THE TERMS OF THIS
AGREEMENT, THEN DO NOT DOWNLOAD, INSTALL OR USE THE PRODUCT.
License Terms for the Zimbra Collaboration Suite:
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Oracle Binary Code License Agreement for the Java SE Platform Products
ORACLE AMERICA, INC. ("ORACLE"), FOR AND ON BEHALF OF ITSELF AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES UNDER COMMON CONTROL, IS WILLING TO LICENSE THE SOFTWARE TO YOU ONLY UPON THE CONDITION THAT YOU ACCEPT ALL OF THE TERMS CONTAINED IN THIS BINARY CODE LICENSE AGREEMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS (COLLECTIVELY "AGREEMENT"). PLEASE READ THE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY. BY SELECTING THE "ACCEPT LICENSE AGREEMENT" (OR THE EQUIVALENT) BUTTON AND/OR BY USING THE SOFTWARE YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ THE TERMS AND AGREE TO THEM. IF YOU ARE AGREEING TO THESE TERMS ON BEHALF OF A COMPANY OR OTHER LEGAL ENTITY, YOU REPRESENT THAT YOU HAVE THE LEGAL AUTHORITY TO BIND THE LEGAL ENTITY TO THESE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT HAVE SUCH AUTHORITY, OR IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS, THEN SELECT THE "DECLINE LICENSE AGREEMENT" (OR THE EQUIVALENT) BUTTON AND YOU MUST NOT USE THE SOFTWARE ON THIS SITE OR ANY OTHER MEDIA ON WHICH THE SOFTWARE IS CONTAINED.
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8. TRADEMARKS AND LOGOS. You acknowledge and agree as between you
and Oracle that Oracle owns the ORACLE and JAVA trademarks and all ORACLE- and JAVA-related trademarks, service marks, logos and other brand
designations ("Oracle Marks"), and you agree to comply with the Third
Party Usage Guidelines for Oracle Trademarks currently located at
http://www.oracle.com/us/legal/third-party-trademarks/index.html. Any use you make of the Oracle Marks inures to Oracle's benefit.
9. U.S. GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS. If Software is being acquired by or on behalf of the U.S. Government or by a U.S. Government prime contractor or subcontractor (at any tier), then the Government's rights in Software and accompanying documentation shall be only those set forth in this Agreement.
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11. SEVERABILITY. If any provision of this Agreement is held to be unenforceable, this Agreement will remain in effect with the provision omitted, unless omission would frustrate the intent of the parties, in which case this Agreement will immediately terminate.
12. INTEGRATION. This Agreement is the entire agreement between you and Oracle relating to its subject matter. It supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral or written communications, proposals, representations and warranties and prevails over any conflicting or additional terms of any quote, order, acknowledgment, or other communication between the parties relating to its subject matter during the term of this Agreement. No modification of this Agreement will be binding, unless in writing and signed by an authorized representative of each party.
SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS
These Supplemental License Terms add to or modify the terms of the Binary Code License Agreement. Capitalized terms not defined in these Supplemental Terms shall have the same meanings ascribed to them in the Binary Code License Agreement. These Supplemental Terms shall supersede any inconsistent or conflicting terms in the Binary Code License Agreement, or in any license contained within the Software.
A. COMMERCIAL FEATURES. You may not use the Commercial Features for running Programs, Java applets or applications in your internal business operations or for any commercial or production purpose, or for any purpose other than as set forth in Sections B, C, D and E of these Supplemental Terms. If You want to use the Commercial Features for any purpose other than as permitted in this Agreement, You must obtain a separate license from Oracle.
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C. LICENSE TO DISTRIBUTE SOFTWARE. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement and restrictions and exceptions set forth in the README File, including, but not limited to the Java Technology Restrictions of these Supplemental Terms, Oracle grants you a non-exclusive, non-transferable, limited license without fees to reproduce and distribute the Software, provided that (i) you distribute the Software complete and unmodified and only bundled as part of, and for the sole purpose of running, your Programs, (ii) the Programs add significant and primary functionality to the Software, (iii) you do not distribute additional software intended to replace any component(s) of the Software, (iv) you do not remove or alter any proprietary legends or notices contained in the Software, (v) you only distribute the Software subject to a license agreement that: (a) is a complete, unmodified reproduction of this Agreement; or (b) protects Oracle's interests consistent with the terms contained in this Agreement and that includes the notice set forth in Section G, and (vi) you agree to defend and indemnify Oracle and its licensors from and against any damages, costs, liabilities, settlement amounts and/or expenses (including attorneys' fees) incurred in connection with any claim, lawsuit or action by any third party that arises or results from the use or distribution of any and all Programs and/or Software.
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E. DISTRIBUTION BY PUBLISHERS. This section pertains to your distribution of the JavaTM SE Development Kit Software with your printed book or magazine (as those terms are commonly used in the industry) relating to Java technology ("Publication"). Subject to and conditioned upon your compliance with the restrictions and obligations contained in the Agreement, Oracle hereby grants to you a non-exclusive, nontransferable limited right to reproduce complete and unmodified copies of the Software on electronic media (the "Media") for the sole purpose of inclusion and distribution with your Publication(s), subject to the following terms: (i) You may not distribute the Software on a stand-alone basis; it must be distributed with your Publication(s); (ii) You are responsible for downloading the Software from the applicable Oracle web site; (iii) You must refer to the Software as JavaTM SE Development Kit; (iv) The Software must be reproduced in its entirety and without any modification whatsoever (including with respect to all proprietary notices) and distributed with your Publication subject to a license agreement that is a complete, unmodified reproduction of this Agreement; (v) The Media label shall include the following information: Copyright 2011, Oracle America, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. ORACLE and JAVA trademarks and all ORACLE- and JAVA-related trademarks, service marks, logos and other brand
designations are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle in the U.S. and other countries. This information must be placed on the Media label in such a manner as to only apply to the Oracle Software; (vi) You must clearly identify the Software as Oracle's product on the Media holder or Media label, and you may not state or imply that Oracle is responsible for any third-party software contained on the Media; (vii) You may not include any third party software on the Media which is intended to be a replacement or substitute for the Software; (viii) You agree to defend and indemnify Oracle and its licensors from and against any damages, costs, liabilities, settlement amounts and/or expenses (including attorneys' fees) incurred in connection with any claim, lawsuit or action by any third party that arises or results from the use or distribution of the Software and/or the Publication; ; and (ix) You shall provide Oracle with a written notice for each Publication; such notice shall include the following information: (1) title of Publication, (2) author(s), (3) date of Publication, and (4) ISBN or ISSN numbers. Such notice shall be sent to Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, California 94065 U.S.A , Attention: General Counsel.
F. JAVA TECHNOLOGY RESTRICTIONS. You may not create, modify, or change the behavior of, or authorize your licensees to create, modify, or change the behavior of, classes, interfaces, or subpackages that are in any way identified as "java", "javax", "sun", ?oracle? or similar convention as specified by Oracle in any naming convention designation.
G. COMMERCIAL FEATURES NOTICE. For purpose of complying with Supplemental Term Section C.(v)(b) and D.(v)(b), your license agreement shall include the following notice, where the notice is displayed in a manner that anyone using the Software will see the notice:
Use of the Commercial Features for any commercial or production purpose requires a separate license from Oracle. ?Commercial Features? means those features identified Table 1-1 (Commercial Features In Java SE Product Editions) of the Software documentation accessible at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html
H. SOURCE CODE. Software may contain source code that, unless expressly licensed for other purposes, is provided solely for reference purposes pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. Source code may not be redistributed unless expressly provided for in this Agreement.
I. THIRD PARTY CODE. Additional copyright notices and license terms applicable to portions of the Software are set forth in the THIRDPARTYLICENSEREADME file accessible at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html. In addition to any terms and conditions of any third party opensource/freeware license identified in the THIRDPARTYLICENSEREADME file, the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provisions in paragraphs 4 and 5 of the Binary Code License Agreement shall apply to all Software in this distribution.
J. TERMINATION FOR INFRINGEMENT. Either party may terminate this Agreement immediately should any Software become, or in either party's opinion be likely to become, the subject of a claim of infringement of any intellectual property right.
K. INSTALLATION AND AUTO-UPDATE. The Software's installation and auto-update processes transmit a limited amount of data to Oracle (or its service provider) about those specific processes to help Oracle understand and optimize them. Oracle does not associate the data with personally identifiable information. You can find more information about the data Oracle collects as a result of your Software download at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html.
For inquiries please contact: Oracle America, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway,
Redwood Shores, California 94065, USA.
Last updated May 17, 2011
Do you agree with the terms of the software license agreement? [N] y
Checking for prerequisites...
Checking for suggested prerequisites...
Prerequisite check complete.
Checking current number of databases...
Do you want to verify message store database integrity? [Y]
Verifying integrity of message store databases. This may take a while.
mysqld is alive
No errors found
Checking for installable packages
The Zimbra Collaboration Server appears already to be installed.
It can be upgraded with no effect on existing accounts,
or the current installation can be completely removed prior
to installation for a clean install.
Do you wish to upgrade? [Y]
Select the packages to install
Checking required space for zimbra-core
Checking space for zimbra-store
The system will be modified. Continue? [N] y
Shutting down zimbra mail
Backing up the ldap database...done.
Removing existing packages
Removing deployed webapp directories
Setting defaults from saved config in /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/config.save
Restoring existing configuration file from /opt/zimbra/.saveconfig/localconfig.xml...done
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log
Upgrading from 8.0.3_GA_5664 to 8.0.4_GA_5737
Stopping zimbra services...done.
This appears to be 8.0.3_GA
Checking ldap status...not running.
Checking ldap status...not running.
Updating from 8.0.4_GA
Updating global config and COS's with attributes introduced after 8.0.3_GA...done.
Checking ldap status....not running.
Setting defaults from existing config...done.
Checking for port conflicts
Setting defaults from ldap...done.
Saving config in /opt/zimbra/config.11242...done.
Operations logged to /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log
Setting local config values...done.
Initializing core config...Setting up CA...done.
Deploying CA to /opt/zimbra/conf/ca ...done.
Setting replication password...done.
Setting Postfix password...done.
Setting amavis password...done.
Setting nginx password...done.
Creating server entry for centos64.ehowstuff.local...already exists.
Setting Zimbra IP Mode...done.
Saving CA in ldap ...done.
Saving SSL Certificate in ldap ...done.
Setting spell check URL...done.
Setting service ports on centos64.ehowstuff.local...done.
Adding centos64.ehowstuff.local to zimbraMailHostPool in default COS...done.
Setting Keyboard Shortcut Preferences...done.
Setting MTA auth host...done.
Setting TimeZone Preference...done.
Initializing mta config...done.
Setting services on centos64.ehowstuff.local...done.
Creating user email@example.com...already exists.
Creating user firstname.lastname@example.org...already exists.
Creating user email@example.com...already exists.
Setting spam training and Anti-virus quarantine accounts...done.
Setting up syslog.conf...done.
Checking for deprecated zimlets...done.
Checking for network zimlets in LDAP...done.
Removing network zimlets...
Finished removing network zimlets.
Installing common zimlets...
Finished installing common zimlets.
Getting list of all zimlets...done.
Updating non-standard zimlets...
Finished updating non-standard zimlets.
Skipping creation of default domain GAL sync account - existing install detected.
You have the option of notifying Zimbra of your installation.
This helps us to track the uptake of the Zimbra Collaboration Server.
The only information that will be transmitted is:
The VERSION of zcs installed (8.0.4_GA_5737_RHEL6_64)
The ADMIN EMAIL ADDRESS created (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Notify Zimbra of your installation? [Yes] no
Setting up zimbra crontab...done.
Moving /tmp/zmsetup.06132013-182929.log to /opt/zimbra/log
Configuration complete - press return to exit
Traceroute command is a network diagnostic tool for displaying the route packets take to network host or destination. It shows how long each hop will takes and how many hops that the packet requires to reach the specify destination. In linux, traceroute command is used while in windows and dos environment, they used tracert command. In this post i will show you how to install and how to use traceroute command to diagnose your IP network related issues. This steps has been tested on RHEL 6/7, CentOS 6/7 and Oracle Linux 6/7.
1. If your linux VPS or dedicated server does not installed with traceroute, it will return this warning :
# traceroute www.google.com
-bash: traceroute: command not found
Or you can verify the traceroute install or not by issue which command :
# which traceroute
/usr/bin/which: no traceroute in (/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin)
2. To install traceroute, run the following command :
# yum install traceroute -y
3. Verify the command install or not :
# which traceroute
4. How to use traceroute command :
a. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com :
# traceroute [options]
# traceroute www.google.com
traceroute to www.google.com (184.108.40.206), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
1 192.168.2.1 (192.168.2.1) 9.233 ms 9.020 ms 8.857 ms
2 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) 20.717 ms 20.529 ms 27.526 ms
3 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) 57.368 ms 57.446 ms 57.187 ms
4 10.55.32.58 (10.55.32.58) 76.846 ms 10.55.32.56 (10.55.32.56) 66.418 ms 66.906 ms
5 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206) 75.779 ms 65.556 ms 65.592 ms
6 * * *
7 * * *
8 * * *
9 * * *
10 * * *
11 * * *
12 * * *
13 * * *
14 * * *
15 * * *
16 * * *
17 * * *
18 * * *
19 * * *
20 * * *
21 * * *
22 * * *
23 * * *
24 * * *
25 * * *
26 * * *
27 * * *
28 * * *
29 * * *
30 * * *
1 is the internet gateway on the network this traceroute was done (ADSL modem local IP) 2 is the ISP the origin computer is connected to.
My PPPoE modem WAN IP details :
b. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and do not resolve IP addresses to their domain names :
# traceroute www.google.com -n
c. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and set the number of seconds to wait for response to a probe to 0.1 seconds (Default is 5.0) :
# traceroute www.google.com -w 0.1
d. Find the network path from my centos6 server to google.com and set the number of probes per each hop to 5 (Default is 3) :
# traceroute www.google.com -q 5
5. Display basic command line options help for more usage :
# traceroute --help
traceroute [ -46dFITnreAUV ] [ -f first_ttl ] [ -g gate,... ] [ -i device ] [ -m max_ttl ] [ -N squeries ] [ -p port ] [ -t tos ] [ -l flow_label ] [ -w waittime ] [ -q nqueries ] [ -s src_addr ] [ -z sendwait ] host [ packetlen ]
-4 Use IPv4
-6 Use IPv6
-d --debug Enable socket level debugging
-F --dont-fragment Do not fragment packets
-f first_ttl --first=first_ttl
Start from the first_ttl hop (instead from 1)
-g gate,... --gateway=gate,...
Route packets through the specified gateway
(maximum 8 for IPv4 and 127 for IPv6)
-I --icmp Use ICMP ECHO for tracerouting
-T --tcp Use TCP SYN for tracerouting
-i device --interface=device
Specify a network interface to operate with
-m max_ttl --max-hops=max_ttl
Set the max number of hops (max TTL to be
reached). Default is 30
-N squeries --sim-queries=squeries
Set the number of probes to be tried
simultaneously (default is 16)
-n Do not resolve IP addresses to their domain names
-p port --port=port Set the destination port to use. It is either
initial udp port value for "default" method
(incremented by each probe, default is 33434), or
initial seq for "icmp" (incremented as well,
default from 1), or some constant destination
port for other methods (with default of 80 for
"tcp", 53 for "udp", etc.)
-t tos --tos=tos Set the TOS (IPv4 type of service) or TC (IPv6
traffic class) value for outgoing packets
-l flow_label --flowlabel=flow_label
Use specified flow_label for IPv6 packets
-w waittime --wait=waittime
Set the number of seconds to wait for response to
a probe (default is 5.0). Non-integer (float
point) values allowed too
-q nqueries --queries=nqueries
Set the number of probes per each hop. Default is
-r Bypass the normal routing and send directly to a
host on an attached network
-s src_addr --source=src_addr
Use source src_addr for outgoing packets
-z sendwait --sendwait=sendwait
Minimal time interval between probes (default 0).
If the value is more than 10, then it specifies a
number in milliseconds, else it is a number of
seconds (float point values allowed too)
-e --extensions Show ICMP extensions (if present), including MPLS
-A --as-path-lookups Perform AS path lookups in routing registries and
print results directly after the corresponding
-M name --module=name Use specified module (either builtin or external)
for traceroute operations. Most methods have
their shortcuts (`-I' means `-M icmp' etc.)
-O OPTS,... --options=OPTS,...
Use module-specific option OPTS for the
traceroute module. Several OPTS allowed,
separated by comma. If OPTS is "help", print info
about available options
--sport=num Use source port num for outgoing packets. Implies
-U --udp Use UDP to particular port for tracerouting
(instead of increasing the port per each probe),
default port is 53
-UL Use UDPLITE for tracerouting (default dest port
-P prot --protocol=prot Use raw packet of protocol prot for tracerouting
--mtu Discover MTU along the path being traced. Implies
`-F -N 1'
--back Guess the number of hops in the backward path and
print if it differs
-V --version Print version info and exit
--help Read this help and exit
+ host The host to traceroute to
packetlen The full packet length (default is the length of an IP
header plus 40). Can be ignored or increased to a minimal
MySQL Database server is one of the most popular used database in the internet especially for content management and blogging site. It’s can stores and retrieves data for the blog, websites and applications. This post will describes how you can install and securing MySQL on CentOS 6.4 virtual private server (VPS) or dedicated MySQL database server. For more information on MySQL, you can visit their website at www.mysql.com.
1. Install MySQL Database Server using yum command :
[root@centos64 ~]# yum install mysql mysql-server -y
[root@centos64 ~]# yum install mysql mysql-server -y
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirror.upsi.edu.my
* epel: kartolo.sby.datautama.net.id
* extras: mirror.upsi.edu.my
* updates: mirror.upsi.edu.my
Setting up Install Process
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-libs = 5.1.69-1.el6_4 for package: mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBI for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(DBI) for package: mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.67-1.el6_3 will be updated
---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 will be an update
---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.013-3.el6 will be installed
---> Package perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.609-4.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Package Arch Version Repository Size
mysql x86_64 5.1.69-1.el6_4 updates 907 k
mysql-server x86_64 5.1.69-1.el6_4 updates 8.7 M
Installing for dependencies:
perl-DBD-MySQL x86_64 4.013-3.el6 base 134 k
perl-DBI x86_64 1.609-4.el6 base 705 k
Updating for dependencies:
mysql-libs x86_64 5.1.69-1.el6_4 updates 1.2 M
Install 4 Package(s)
Upgrade 1 Package(s)
Total download size: 12 M
(1/5): mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm | 907 kB 00:07
(2/5): mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm | 1.2 MB 00:12
(3/5): mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64.rpm | 8.7 MB 01:30
(4/5): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64.rpm | 134 kB 00:00
(5/5): perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64.rpm | 705 kB 00:06
Total 101 kB/s | 12 MB 01:57
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Updating : mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 1/6
Installing : perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64 2/6
Installing : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64 3/6
Installing : mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 4/6
Installing : mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 5/6
Cleanup : mysql-libs-5.1.67-1.el6_3.x86_64 6/6
Verifying : mysql-libs-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 1/6
Verifying : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64 2/6
Verifying : perl-DBI-1.609-4.el6.x86_64 3/6
Verifying : mysql-server-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 4/6
Verifying : mysql-5.1.69-1.el6_4.x86_64 5/6
Verifying : mysql-libs-5.1.67-1.el6_3.x86_64 6/6
mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4 mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.69-1.el6_4
perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.013-3.el6 perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.609-4.el6
2. Make mysqld daemon start at boot and start MySQL Database Server :
[root@centos64 ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
[root@centos64 ~]# service mysqld start
Initializing MySQL database: Installing MySQL system tables...
Filling help tables...
To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system
PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h centos64.ehowstuff.local password 'new-password'
Alternatively you can run:
which will also give you the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default. This is
strongly recommended for production servers.
See the manual for more instructions.
You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd /usr ; /usr/bin/mysqld_safe &
You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl
cd /usr/mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl
Please report any problems with the /usr/bin/mysqlbug script!
[ OK ]
Starting mysqld: [ OK ]
3. Securing MySQL Database Server. This includes setting up the password for mysql root, remove anonymous users, disallow root login remotely and remove test database and access.
[root@centos64 ~]# /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.
Set root password? [Y/n] y
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
- Dropping test database...
- Removing privileges on test database...
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!
4. For testing, login to MySQL Server using defined password :
[root@centos64 ~]# mysql -u root -p
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 10
Server version: 5.1.69 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> show databases;
| Database |
| information_schema |
| mysql |
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Postfix is a open-source mail transfer agent (MTA) that routes and delivers electronic mail. Postfix is an alternative for Sendmail service which provide the same function. This post will describe on how you can install and setup postfix on CentOS 6.4. After you installed postfix, you can use postfix command to controls the operation of the Postfix mail system such as start or stop the master daemon, do a health check, and other maintenance.
1. To install Postfix, use the following yum command :
[root@centos64 ~]# yum install postfix -y
2. To verify if Postfix is already installed, use the following rpm command :
Static routing is a type of method of network routing. Static routing is not actually a routing protocol but it’s just a manual configuration on the network route. This usualy managed by network system administrator. In Linux, static route can be added and delete using “route” command. But the drawback is when linux server is rebooted, it will forget the static routes configuration. To avoid network interruption on the linux server, you can configure static route to take effect immediately without rebooting and also should apply after the next reboot. Static Routes that apply after next reboot is called Persistent Static Routes. To achieve this on CentOS 6.4, the following steps should be perform :
1. To make configuration take effect immediately, run the following command :
VIM (VIsual editor iMproved) or VI enhanced is the improved and advanced version of the famous vi editor which added with many enhancements like GUI support, interpreters for the Python and Perl scripting languages, syntax highlighting, online help and multiple windows. VIM or vim-enhanced package seeks to provide complete version of the previous vi editor. Vi was the first editor for UNIX, and is still very popular until today. In order to install VIM on your CentOS 6.4 all you have to do is run the following :
[root@centos64 ~]# yum install vim-enhanced -y
Warning if your CentOS does not install with VIM.
[root@centos64 ~]# vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
-bash: vim: command not found
EPEL repository is another extra repository that creates, maintains, and manages a high quality set of additional packages for Enterprise Linux, including, but not limited to, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and CentOS server. By using EPEL repository you can install some other third party software such as nagios, or bugzilla, phpmyadmin, or any other standard open source software just using yum command. These repositories are not officially supported by CentOS, but this repository provide much more current versions of popular PHP or MySQL applications. This post describe how you can prepare EPEL Repository on CentOS 6.4 x86_64.
1. Download and import the GPG keys for EPEL software packages:
This post will brief you on how to setup Webmin 1.620 using yum repository in CentOS 6.4 virtual private server (VPS). Webmin is an open source system administration and system configuration tool which provide you web-based interface to manage, administer and configure your CentOS VPS or dedicated server through web browser. It’s provide graphical interface remote administration instead of manually edit the configuration using command line from putty or console.
1. Enabling Yum repository for Webmin. Create the /etc/yum.repos.d/webmin.repo file containing :
[root@centos64 ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/webmin.repo
name=Webmin Distribution Neutral